Travel Journal – May

Alexander Svoboda's Journal of a Journey

Alexander Svoboda's Journal of a Journey to Europe

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May


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May 1st
It was a cold morning, colder than any other day,
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and it seems that the higher we go the colder it becomes. The night was cold too, colder than yesterday.
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At 7:15 we left al-Showayt and we marched on an even flat land resembling
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Baghdad's lands, but always keeping the mountains on our left. Here the kroud grew more numerous
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on the banks of the Euphrates and there are also many wide sandbanks in the river. At 12:15,

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al-Mayadin
we arrived at the village of al-Mayadin al-Mayadin: A town in eastern Syria built in 1868 on the right bank of the Euphrates River. It lies about 45 kilometers south of Dayr al-Zawr. The name means "field" in Arabic and it once a training ground for cavalry. al-Mayadi was a pricipal town in the Syrian desert and an important market for the exchange of goods with Bedouins. , which came into view one hour and a half's march away.
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We saw the village mulberry trees first. I found it a big town, bigger than all the others
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we passed except al-'Ana. Some of the houses are built on high ground and are like those at al-Hit.
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Mostly they are well built with baked bricks, plaster, and large doors made
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in the usual manner. Everything is available here. Several kinds of food and clothing,
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white bread, meat, and other things. At 1:00 in the afternoon we found a place to stop.
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The caravan encamped on a high, dry bank facing an extremely wide, green riverbank.
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From here we have maybe just eight hours left until al-Dayr, where we will ride tomorrow morning, God permitting.
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The stifling heat grew worse in the afternoon, with
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black rain-filled clouds. We had only just arrived at 2:30 when a downpour hit us
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along with an extremely strong westerly wind, drenching us all.
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The rain came into the tent and soaked the beds. It continued for nearly
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15 minutes with flashes of lightening and loud claps of thunder. It stopped raining half an hour later and the wind lessened but
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the desert became muddy and impossible to cross. This rain cloud did a lot of damage
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since we are in such a place with absolutely no shelter. The wind was still blowing as before
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but the weather has cleared a little and the sun came out. However, if the rain comes again,
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we will be totally lost and we are worried about the night. Passing by al-Mayadin
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we saw buildings on the mountaintop on our left that are extremely old and bigger than those we saw
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yesterday. I wanted to go and look if it were not for this damned weather that prevented me. Some say that these places
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built so long ago are called rahabah or rahabut al-Rahabah: [rahabah, rahabut] A town mentioned in the Old Testament spelled Rah bout that was most probably built by Ninroud Bin Koush in 2000 BCE. It was one of the Aramaic principalities destroyed by the Assyrians upon the rise of their Empire. Today, the site is known as the "Rahbi Citadel" or "Rahba Citadel" or "Qalaat al-Rahba," an Arab fortress built by Assad al-Din Shirgoh who was the uncle of Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi. It was rebuilt to ensure the protection of the Euphrates route and to withstand Tatar and Mongol invasions. as is written in the Old Testament.
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They are about 2500 to 2800 years old and truly worth seeing.
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Colonel Mockler, who had been to see them this morning, said that on some of the walls there are Syriac Syriac: Referring to the Syriac Christians, a community rooted in Near Eastern Christianity. The Syriac language developed out of Aramaic to become the literary language of the Aramaic Christians in the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire and further east in the Sassanian Empire. In the 5th century, the Nestorian schism and the Council of Chalcedon led to significant shifts in the Church. Ctesiphon became the capital in the East and Antioch in the West. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Syriac Christians formed distinct but not isolated communities in Syria, Iraq, and Jordan. ["Syriac" in Encyclopedia of Medieval Islamic Civilization] TO COMPLETE: REFERENCE IS TO SYRIAC LITERATURE engravings,
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one depicts a lion with a human figure underneath and other things. I regret that I did not see these places.

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May 2
A COLD MORNING with a strong westerly wind blowing. The night was
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extremely cold and wet. We were up at 5:30 and after drinking tea we gathered the ropes, tents, and everything else and
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loaded them onto the animals. At 7:15 we rode toward Dayr al-Zawr leaving
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al-Mayadin behind us in a half hour. We marched
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on even, flat terrain, resembling the wilds around Baghdad, always keeping the chain of hills on our right.
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We found the ground wet after yesterday's rainfall but after two hours' march the desert
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appeared dry. The rain had only been in our vicinity. Thus we traveled on,
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Dayr al-Zawr
sometimes through cultivated lands and sometimes over arid lands. At 9:30 we passed
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through the region of the Khabur River Khabur: Name of a river in Syria; al-Khabur [Nahr al-Khabur (Ar.), Habur Nehri (Tr.)] was an important tributary of the Euphrates River. It rises in the mountains of southeastern Turkey near Diyarbakr and flows southeastward to al-Hasakah, Syria, where it receives its main tributary, the Jaghjagh. It then meanders south to join the Euphrates downstream from Dayr az-Zawr. The Khabur (“Source of Fertility") has a total length of about 200 miles (320 km). The climate of the drainage basin is warm and semiarid to arid. The river has long been important for irrigating the fertile al-Hasakah region of northeastern Syria. , but we could not see it in the distance. At last,
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at one in the afternoon, we came to a sandy region and here we were hit by a strong gust of wind mixed with sand and
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dust that nearly blinded us. We passed through it in just half an hour. At 2:00 in the afternoon
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the town of Dayr al-Zawr came into view in the distance. We continued to march between small hills
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behind which the town would sometimes vanish and then reappear. Truly, I was overcome by joy
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when we approached a half hour's distance because 17 days of travel through the desert, always among the nomads,
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and never seeing any of our own kind had saddened my heart. Then, when we were
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one quarter of an hour away, the town came into full view, resembling the entrance to Baghdad from Bab al-Mo'adhdham Bab al-Mo'adhdham: The gate at the northeastern entrance to Baghdad. Originally named "Bab al-Sultan" in honor of the Seljuk Sultan Tagur Bek (1055 CE), the gate was demolished in 1923. The name was subsequently changed as the gate then led to the big mosque of Imam al-Mo'adhdham. .
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In this moment I remembered my homeland and everything there. Because Colonel
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Mockler was at the head of the caravan, he was received by the zaptiye battalion commandant Battalion commandant: [(Tr.)tabura-ghassi] Tabur is a Battalion of about 800 men and ghassi could be translated here as 'leader'.
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and the chief of the municipality along with ten zaptiye Zaptiye: [zaptieh (Tr.), zabite (Ar.)] The 'policing' (zabita) in Ottoman times was usually carried out by companies of the janissaries and so was a military function. The Zaptiye was officially established by a 1869 Tanzimat Military Code which established a police force distinct from the army. However, because this police force was armed it came under the jurisdiction of the Military Commander in Chief’s Office and was organized on military lines with a company (bölük) of 200 men, battalion (tabur) of 800, and regiment (alay) of 3200, commanded by a Bölük Ağası, Tabur Ağası, and Alay Beyi. The individuals were called 'zaptiye'. The zaptiye were later called 'jandarma' (gendarmes). who led us to the edge of town.
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A large crowd, a great number of men and boys, were at the town gate watching us.
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I was very pleased to find a few Christians among the boys
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I was able to speak to them in Arabic and asked about things in the town

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and other topics. Just then they told us that we would have to be inspected for the plague before entering and
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the military physician must examine us. We all stopped and they sent the men and boys away.
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The physician came and examined every one of us by feeling under
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the armpit. A woman came also to examine the women. A few minutes later we entered the town
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and people were still coming to look at us. Truthfully, the way they had examined us
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is quite ridiculous because it was done with some kind of mockery. Both physicians did nothing more than lay
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their hands on us and say, "Go, you have nothing." That is also some kind of Turkish business.
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Dayr al-Zawr
In the end, as my eyes passed over the group of people looking from one person to the next,
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Razouk Dinha whom I know very well from his time in Baghdad and Basrah appeared right in front of me!
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I was so pleased as we greeted each other, remembering my time in Baghdad,
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I talked to him all the while I walked. I learned that Colonel Mockler decided to camp in the municipality orchard,
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at the invitation of the chief of the municipality. He was unable to decline. At last we entered through the market,
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roofed over like an orchard trellis. We arrived at a very long and wide road,
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nearly 20 cubits in width and paved in European order. It is a thousand times better than the roads of
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Baghdad. Here there is never any mud on the roads.
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Next to the wall is a marble irrigation canal which they use to sprinkle the long road and nearby few small
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mulberry trees are planted. It appears that this road will be extremely pleasant in due time.
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Coming to the orchard gate we saw that the road had been sprinkled with water
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and military people were waiting for us. The chief of the municipality received us very cordially. We entered
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a well-designed and furnished office. When the caravan arrived
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we put up the tents in a pleasant place in the orchard. The orchard has many
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pomegranate trees and other greenery, like bean plants and ...[illegible] “...”: Illegible word. . Among the people here, I also recognized Thomas
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Ossany Thomas Ossany: Ossany moved to the village of Amara in 1873 with his wife and six children where he was appointed a member of the Mejlis of Tamayyiz. In 1875, he was replaced by Fathalla Sayegh. [JMS-MM12:94; MM15:15] who came from Baghdad 11 months ago with Razouk Dinha.

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He asked me many things about Baghdad. After we settled in I wanted to go to church because
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they told me there are two of them here. It is also the month of Holy Devotions to Mary Holy Month of Mary: [(Ar.)al-shahr al-maryiami]The annual month of devotions to the Virgin Mary in May.
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and I wanted to hear them. So I took mother and Razouk with me to the Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Catholic Church: The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic Church. Historically it represents a schism from the Armenian Apostolic Church. It is in full compliance with and subject to the authority of the pope in Rome. The Catholic Armenians have dioceses in many countries of the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. In 1928, the Armenian Catholic Church in Lebanon was administratively, academically, culturally reorganized. The congregation includes approximately thirty thousand people, served by about thirty priests and monks, spread over eight parishes. Despite a broad diaspora, the Armenian people maintain a sense of their national, cultural, and religious identity. .
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I found it very pleasing, decorated, and rather small, holding no more than 50 to 70 people.
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All the pictures and statues inside are lovely and I very much liked it. After hearing the prayers of the month of Holy Devotions to
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Mary we returned to the tents. After dinner at sunset Razouk came to spend the evening with us.
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He invited us for lunch at his house tomorrow and we promised to come.
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It became cold and damp at sunset.
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May 3
Today we got up as usual and drank tea. The night was stuffy
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and the morning likewise. At 8:30 I went with Colonel Mockler to visit
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the church I saw yesterday and we met the priest, named Father
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Dayr al-Zawr
Narciss. We also met the Syriac Parson Yaqoub who heads the Syriac sect here.
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As we were leaving the priests expressed their desire to visit us.
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Colonel Mockler said he would be available in one hour. So we returned to the camp.
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Half an hour later, Razouk and Tommy Ossany came to visit us followed by the priests with Sa'id Effendi Sa’id Effendi: Archbishop Ignatius’ brother. ,
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brother of Archbishop Ignatius Archbishop Ignatius: [Khoury Ignatius] The Assyrian priest traveled from Basrah to Baghdad on board Lynch Bros. Steamship. In March 1891, he gave Joseph Mathias two letters of introduction for his travels in Europe. [JMS-MM33:171, 172; MM44:5; MM35:195] in Baghdad. They received two letters
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about us. Half an hour later they left and went to visit Colonel Mockler. I wanted to bathe,
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shave, and get a haircut. I seized the opportunity, took my clothes,
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and went to the bath run by Antone, the son of Batti al-Baghdadi.
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I went to a barber for a haircut and a shave. I went to bathe afterwards
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and I found it pleasant, hot, and paved with marble.
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Returning to our place an hour later I found Touza, Jarjous's wife and the sister
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of our friend Archbishop Basil Archbishop Basil: In September 1889, Basil wroted to Joseph Matthias informing him of the arrival of his neice Alice and her husband Captain Clements. [JMS-NA59:133] , who was in Baghdad seven years ago.

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They came to visit us with the wife of the municipal physician. They are very nice people and speak
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softly with extreme politeness. It turned 12:30 and they were still with us.
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At last they left and we set out at once for Razouk's where we also found the Armenian priest who joined us for lunch.
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They served lamb and kubba mosul Kubba Mosul: (Ar.) A kind of meatball made of bulgur, onions, minced meat and spices. . We returned at 2:30 when
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Dayr
I took the opportunity to write these lines. Afterwards I went to see the town. On my way back I went to
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the place of Anton Baghdibaghdassar with whom I was able to strike up a
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friendship when I arrived here yesterday. He is a nice man from Damascus, about 27 years old. He owns
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Dayr al-Zawr
a big shop where he sells everything. He offered me a sherbet and I bought some apricot jam from him.
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Later, I went with Colonel Mockler to tour the town and returned at sunset. I went to bed
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after dinner.
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May 4th
Unlike before, this morning was moderately cold and it became somewhat hot. The night was
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not as cold as yesterday. We awoke and drank tea and decided to visit the guests
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who had called on us yesterday. I left the orchard with my mother and father and we went to visit
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al-Zawr
the Armenian Father Narciss. His sister-in-law, the wife of Jarjis Dikran, came also. After
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a long talk we left and went to visit Archbishop Basil's sister. She received us very nicely
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and offered us citron Bitter orange: [(Ar.)turunj] Citrus fruit mostly found in hot tropical countries. The scientific name Citrus Medica Risso, also known as the Seville Orange. jam followed by coffee and sherbet. We stayed for one hour and then went to visit
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the wife of Monsieur Salim, the municipality physician. And again, welcoming us graciously they showed us
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to the guest area and offered us several kinds of jam and sweets
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followed by coffee. Then she brought in two dishes of sugared and plain nuts that she divided and placed
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in our pockets, as is the custom. Truthfully we found that only the notables of Dayr
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are urbane and receive guests with a cordial welcome. We left at 11:00 Western time and I
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went with Razouk Dinha to tour the markets and other places. I went to all
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the streets and also went to the palace Palace: [(Tr.) saray] Ganj Yousif Pasha built this palace during his governorship over Damascus (1807-1810). where I saw all the rooms.

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I was astonished to see that Dayr is built like this. I returned
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one hour later. Several women of Dayr came to visit us after breakfast, as did the wife of Sa'id Effendi,
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Archbishop Ignatius's brother, with some of her relatives. The dress of some of Dayr's women is quite
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hideous. They put a thing like a golden bowl made over their heads with pieces of cloth the size
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of a hand covered with pearls which dangle over their ears. Most of them also wear a white veil.
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There are no more than 70 or 80 Christian households here. In the afternoon, the people of the municipality and the military officials wanted
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Colonel Mockler to show them his bicycle. He ordered
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Tom Dexter to ride it in the street. People came and gathered around to such an extent that
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no room was left for the bicycle to go. Then seeing the bicycle, they were all utterly astonished and amazed,
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having heard of it only few days before our arrival here, and all were shouting,
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"The iron horse, the iron horse!" At 3:00 in the afternoon I went to Razouk's place and while talking to Doctor Salim
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I learned that Parson Yaqoub has an organ at the church. I was so very pleased
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and I wanted to play, remembering my own organ and my days in Baghdad. So we left
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Razouk at 5:00 and went, Doctor Salim and I, to Parson Yaqoub's place. He received us
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very warmly and I found the organ. I played the tunes I knew and, at that moment,
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I remembered Baghdad and the times when I used to sit in our big room and play my organ.
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I left the Parson's at sunset and returned to the tents. After dinner and sunset at 8:30
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Doctor Salim and his wife came to spend the evening with us, leaving three hours
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later.
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May 5

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THIS MORNING is like yesterday's and so was the night. There are lots of flies here and our tent is filled with thousands of them. At 7:30,
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we made a visit to the family of Sa'id Effendi, Archbishop Ignatius' brother.
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They honored us as the others had done. Returning afterwards I went with my mother to visit

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Parson Yaqoub and see the Syriac Church. On our way we met Touza Jarjous
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and she went with us to visit the Parson. We found the church nice and small but not
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decorated like the Armenian Church. When we returned, we understood that Colonel Mockler
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decided to travel today. So we prepared our baggage for traveling to Damascus. We hired three
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camels to carry water for the Consul and for us because no fresh water is available on the road to Damascus.
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Departure from Dayr al-Zawr
Then all the people we met here came to bid us goodbye and they were very sad at our parting.
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They showed us the true meaning of friendship and wished us the very best journey.
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At 2:00 in the afternoon we packed the tents and our things. Then we strapped the trunks shut.
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The mules came an hour later and as we loaded them I felt as though
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I were on my way out of Baghdad. At 3:30 the caravan was prepared to move. I draped my
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kaffiyah over my head, left the orchard, and said goodbye to everyone I know.
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The Mutasarrif Mutasarrif: (Ar.) Turkish administrative officer in Arab countries. of this place sent twelve fully armed zaptiye to escort
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Colonel Mockler.
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I mounted the horse and the caravan went ahead with all the travelers,
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the Zhair family, and the Director of Palmyra. When I neared the end of town
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heading toward the barren desert al-A'qfir: Probably an old name for the Syrian desert derived from the Arabic word qaf'r, meaning 'wilderness'. We do not know whether this is a description or the name of the desert. It either means "barren" or "barren desert". where we will surely spend some 12 to 15 days.
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Because this is the last moment I will be on the banks of the dear Euphrates, and
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especially as I will be gone for some time, I wanted very much to drink its water
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one last time. So I went to a house and asked them for some water. I drank a little,
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turned towards the Euphrates, and said, "I commend you to God's protection, O

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Euphrates. When will we meet again, will it be soon or later?"
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Since both Razouk Dinha and Tony Ossany had accompanied us, I bade them goodbye outside
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the town. We marched on, distancing ourselves little by little until Dayr was out of sight.
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al-Malhah
We decided to travel three hours today and go to a place
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called al-Malhah al-Malhah: To be completed. . Finally we arrived at 6:00, just before sunset. We unpacked the tents
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and set up camp in a barren desert. A spring with flowing water is next to us on the right but
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it is fouled by the animals coming to drink.
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May 6
Today we were up at 4:00 in the morning because Colonel Mockler said yesterday that we would have
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to march in the early hours. But saying this is useless, because he likes to sleep in and does not wake up
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until sunrise. Finally at 6:15 we moved out of al-Malhah and headed toward a dry and barren
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land without a single green plant. We marched steadily with
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nothing to be seen but earth and sky. It is true what they say that "There is no land but the land of Damascus."
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al-Qebaqeb
Because if one travels without fresh water one will undoubtedly perish. At last
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at 2:15 in the afternoon we came to the military post of al-Qebaqeb al-Qebaqeb: Musil mentioned that 'Kebakeb' was one of the military stations on the road between Tudmor and al-Rahaba. [Palmyrena, 252] , a small fort built in
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the middle of the desert with a well nearby that is six fathoms deep. But what water!
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First all the animals such as sheep, camels, and mules drink from it. Secondly it
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has a bitter and foul taste that is barely tolerable. So we camped opposite the fort.
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We greatly miss the sight of the Euphrates and the taste of its fresh water. Dismounting and settling in, we wanted
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to open one of the waterskins we brought on the camels but we found that the sheepskin was newly tanned
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and the water inside had become green and is wasted. Truthfully we very much regretted this incident and we are also
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afraid that the amount of water may not be sufficient for us because tomorrow's station Station: [konag (Tr.)] is quite distant
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according to some, nearly 18 hours away. We are obliged to stay here until noon tomorrow and then we will travel in stages.
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The wind changed and clouds came.

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May 7
A pleasant but cloudy morning. We woke at 6:15 and awaited
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our departure. After tea I used spare moments
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to write several letters to our family and friends in Baghdad which I would send at the first
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opportunity. Finally we woolgathered until 11:00, and then we
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ate breakfast hastily, and started to tie on the loads. At 12:00 noon we picked up
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and rode. We marched steadily for about two hours under a scorching sun but afterwards it grew cloudy
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with a westerly wind and became cool and chilly. After marching for four hours over
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Muhayfir
gravelly ground in a dry and barren desert without a single bird to be seen, but always
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with distant hills to our right, the caravan in front halted and they said that
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signs of raiders were seen at a distance coming in our direction to plunder us. All the soldiers, the zaptiye,
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and the travelers, some 25 persons gathered and we sent out one armed man to gather information about those coming
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toward us. We arranged the entire caravan and the mule litters in a tight group and continued to march.
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Half an hour later the messenger returned and told us that nearly 50 bedouins Bedouin: Derived from badawi (Ar.), also spelled Bedouin, is a generic name for a desert-dweller, and a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups. The Bedouins constitute only a small part of the total population of the Middle East but inhabit or utilize a large part of the land area throughout most of the desert belt. Most of them are pastoralists who migrate into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back toward the cultivated land in the dry summer months. Following World War I the Bedouin tribes had to submit to the control of the governments of the countries in control of their pasture lands. Many of them became sedentary as a result of political and economic developments, especially after the second World War. Among the Arabic-speaking tribes, the head of the family, as well as of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure, is called sheikh; the sheikh is assisted by an informal tribal council of male elders. were fleeing,
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thinking that we, being the larger group, were raiders coming in pursuit of them. Thus we put our trust in God and rode on
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until the sun had set and darkness spread. At 7:00 we passed Muhayfir Muhayfir: A military station on the road between Qebaqeb and Riqa. which consists of a site
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where a well was dug without reaching water. The government of the Ottomans spent 400 pounds to this end.
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As no water was found, it was abandoned. We unloaded the baggage at 8:15. It was intensely dark.
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Then we pitched our tent temporarily and after a hasty meal went to sleep
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fully dressed because we will rise early tomorrow.
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May 8
A cold and a damp twilight. We awoke at 3:30 after midnight
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to get ready to march. It was an unfortunate night, with dark clouds and rain for about an hour at midnight.
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The desert became cold and the air was damp. We readied ourselves to march
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and then at 5:00 we mounted and left our camp traveling to al-Safna al-Safnah: Also spelled al-Sahne, another stopping point on the road to Riqa. where water is potable.

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Our march was very nice and pleasant with a spring breeze that always cheers the heart. We journeyed for a long time
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through deserts like those we crossed yesterday. Then the weather cleared
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and the wind changed to the west. Because we brought camels with us to carry the water, I wanted to ride
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one. So I immediately made one camel kneel down and mounted its back. Tom Dexter did likewise, and then
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we went out amid the caravan with everybody laughing at us. I rode for about two hours and afterwards Mrs. Mockler,
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al-Sukhna
Mr. Mockler, and papa all rode it, each in turn. I found its gait pleasant
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but jerks the rider back when it gets to its feet. We continued to march. Sometimes I rode and at other times I went on foot
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until exactly 12:00 noon when we came to a small village called
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Sukhna which consists of no more than a few houses built of mud, resembling those at al-Kerrada al-Kerrada: Part of the city of Baghdad to the South and on the East bank of the Tigris River (also called Karrada Sharqiya, or Eastern Kerrada). During Ottoman rule until the British occupation in 1917, this area was a village made up of farmlands with mud houses and separated from Baghdad province by many expansive orchards with no buildings except a few sarays owned by a handful of wealthy individuals. The farmers and other inhabitants of the village used to draw water from the River Tigris as was necessary to irrigate their farms and plantations, using a primitive hoisting device called kerd, hence the name: al-Kerrada'. , with a nearby dwelling
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for the soldiers who protect the inhabitants. Before arriving here we passed mountains on our right,
11
.
high and pleasant to view and white as if gypsum were flowing down from them.
12
.
Here we also found, near to the village, small rain-fed fields. We set up camp opposite three
13
.
orchards with pomegranate and willow trees but they were quite bare. We saw many springs
14
.
around us too, some big and others small, but all are sulphur springs with drinkable water though some are
15
.
warm and others are hot. The weather became hot with a strong sun.
16
May 9
A cold morning with a high, damp wind. We got up at 4:00 and changed our clothes.
17
.
The night was good and not very cold but since midnight the wind blew hard.
18
.
Though Colonel Mockler had said that today we would march at sunrise we moved out much
19
Riqa'
later, and right at 6:00 we left al-Sukhna heading towards the next stopping place. So we rode with the caravan
20
.
and marched steadily, sometimes over even and flat lands and at other times through deserts with bad footing,
21
.
full of stones and extremely difficult to walk on, with hills and mountains surrounding us.
22
.
There is nothing worth mentioning along our way except for arid land like before.
23
.
Then at 10:00 we came across a few Arabs on their way to al-Sukhna. It became hotter and the sun

Page 037


01
.
burned harshly. However we marched steadily on although troubled by the torments of this road
02
.
which is truly tiring and exasperating. At 1:30 in the afternoon
03
.
the station of Riqa' Riqa': In 1908, Musil also stopped here, mentioning that it was another military station, under the protection of the Qumsha clan of the 'Sba'a tribe'. [Palmyrena, 84-85] , our stopping place, came into view in the distance. In the area we saw nearly 100 large tents made of felt
04
.
belonging to the Shammar Shammar: A Bedouin tribe mainly in Saudi Arabia, central, and western Iraq. It is the second largest Bedouin tribe of the Arabian Peninsula. They are part of the Ta'ee tribe, originally from Yemen. For centuries, they lived a sedentary lifestyle until they became camel herders and horse breeders in Northern Najd and expanded north into Iraq during the seventeenth century. By 1908, Musil notes that the station was controlled by the Kumsha clan from the Sba'a tribal confederation. [See above note; Musil, 84-85] Arabs. Their camels, numerous as worms, are teeming in these dry lands
05
.
where only gazelles, which never get thirsty, can live. These Arabs came here this morning
06
.
and they intend to go on to other lands. Their Sheikh is Fahad ibn Adghaym ibn Haddal Fahad bin Adghaym bin Haddal: Sheikh of the Shammar tribe. To be completed
07
.
whose home is beyond Palmyra, some 12 hours away from here. Approaching
08
Riqa'
the Arabs we passed among them looking for somewhere to stop the caravan and dismount. We found
09
.
a nice place, high on a hilltop overlooking all the lands below, with the zaptiye station next to us.
10
.
There are many water springs here, far better than those at al-Sukhna
11
.
where the water is nauseating like the water of the wells in Baghdad houses which
12
.
I could never drink without torment. Thus we found the water better here, cleaner and more
13
.
palatable. However it does not resemble the fine water of the Euphrates whose equal, I think,
14
.
is found nowhere else in all the world and its freshness is unforgettable. What a pity it is to be far from the Euphrates.
15
.
Here I saw a water spring flowing wondrously beneath the rocks
16
.
in a cave deep inside a high mountain. Its water is extremely clear but with a taste of sulfurous gas.
17
.
A very beautiful sight. At the Arabs' camp I saw the howdaj Howdaj: (Ar.) A camel litter usually used by women on long journeys. ,
18
.
which is a long seat placed on the camel's back and ridden in by their women.
19
.
One hour before sunset I wanted to tour the area and the Arabs' camp. At first
20
.
I went down to watch the harvesters reaping excellent barley. Then I saw a spring of clear water
21
.
flowing from the depths of the mountain, an extremely beautiful sight. We went to observe the Arabs.
22
.
Climbing up a mountain I caught sight of the mountain of Palmyra Palmyra: [(Ar.) Tadmor, Tadmur] An important city in the ancient times, located in the Syrian desert, 145 km/90 miles east of Hims. It was known as the bride of the desert. The name 'Palmyra', an original Greek translation for the Aramaic name Tadmor, means 'palm tree'. From the first until the 12th century C.E., Palmyra flourished as a caravan station and the city grew steadily in importance because of its location on the Silk Road. It is most famous for Queen Zenobia, who was captured, imprisoned, and executed by the Roman Emperor Aurelian in 272 after a brief attempt at independence which threatened to deprive the empire of lucrative trade tariffs. Palmyra became a tourist destination in the 18th century after British travelers included the ruins in a popular travel diary and even more so because of the Iraqi Petroleum Company's oil pipeline that ran through the city between Kirkuk and Tripoli, Lebanon in the 20th century. [Encyclopedia of Islam, "Tadmor"] where we will go
23
.
tomorrow. I returned at sunset and the weather became cold and damp. We decided to set off
24
.
in the morning and travel to the famous city of Palmyra.

Page 038


01
May 10
A cold morning with a west wind blowing. The night was pleasant and damp. We were up at 4:00,
02
.
packed the tents at 5:30, and rode toward Palmyra. We marched steadily, at first traveling
03
.
for about one hour between hills and mountains and then on regular, level land where the desert was hard
04
.
and dry. At 7:00 the town of Palmyra came into view in the distance. First we caught sight
05
.
of glittering rock pillars whose story will come later. On the way
06
.
we passed many Arabs from the Aniza Aniza: ['Iniza] Bedouin tribe that lives in northern Saudi Arabia, western Iraq and the Syrian steppe. The Royal families of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain are traced to this tribe. The Sheikh General lives in Western Iraq. This is one of the largest Arab Bedouin tribes with clans in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. Gulf countries, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey and Egypt. . They are going with their cattle to Riqa' to make offerings and celebrate the
07
.
Muslim Feast of Sacrifices The Islamic Feast of Sacrifices: Eid al-Adha (Ar.) falls on the tenth day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah. Eid al-Adha is celebrated by Muslims in commemoration of the Prophet Ibrahim's (Abraham's) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for God. with their Sheikh. We marched on steadily
08
Tadmur Palmyra
always in view of Palmyra which took only until 11:30 Western time. We then reached
09
.
these amazingly ancient and wondrous sites. The first thing we saw were
10
.
the oddly shaped pillars and we passed between them looking for a place to halt and dismount. In the end we camped
11
.
near a big arch with two smaller arches at the sides and about 20 pillars standing in a row
12
.
to the left of the arch's entryway. Some say the construction of these ancient temples is
13
.
as much as 3600 years old, while others say it is much older. The site of the temples and other structures
14
.
is as large as Baghdad and is bound on the right by very high mountains,
15
.
higher than all others we have seen. Four columns, about 30 or 40 cubits in height,
16
.
each made of one block of fine porphyry, stand in front of the big arch. It boggles the mind how
17
.
they could have cut this stone and made it stand upright. It is a thing impossible for anyone to explain without seeing it.
18
.
In the afternoon I left to go around and look at one part of the ruins. First I went
19
.
to the structures nearest us and came upon a temple that is rather small but amazingly built.
20
.
The size of every dressed block of stone used in its construction is no less than five cubits long and two cubits wide
21
.
and each stone is placed one on top of the other. Four big columns with small protruding ledges attached stand
22
.
at the entrance of this place. On one of the ledges I was able to see an inscription
23
.
in Greek and very difficult to read, like

Page 039


01
.
these letters that I copied literally from the stone: ΜΑΛΗΤΟΠΔΕΧΤ.
02
.
A different inscription that Colonel Mockler said to be Palmyrene script
03
.
is engraved at the right edge of the ledge and written like this: .
04
.
Then we left and went to another place. We came to a big gate at least 30 or 40
05
.
cubits long and 20 or 25 wide and built like this: , that is to say with only three blocks of marble stone.
06
.
From top to bottom it is decorated and carved entirely in the patterns of the ancients, a thing
07
.
that one may not notice unless one sees it himself. Several columns like this:
08
Tadmur Palmyra
stand to the sides of this wondrous gate, with blocks of stone set on top, each no less than
09
.
seven or ten cubits long and only a single stone block is laid between every two columns.
10
.
The columns' capitals are all carved in relief with flowers and other patterns, but these carvings will weather and be damaged
11
.
with time. There are ever so many walls in this site, ruined and fallen to the ground with the stones covering the whole area.
12
.
Also many columns had fallen and were left on the ground because no one could lift them due to their size.
13
.
Speaking of the columns, most are 25 to 30 cubits high with shafts made of three blocks of stone
14
.
placed one on top of the other and the circumference of each column, each no less than 7 or 8 cubits, can barely be encircled by four men.
15
.
Here the ground is sandy littered with large and small rocks, ruined walls, and columns that have fallen to the ground.
16
.
Opposite the ruins of Palmyra and to the right, lies a very high hill or
17
.
mountain with a big and frightening castle Castle: Situated on a mountaintop to the West of Palmyra, the Arab fort known as Palmyra Castle (Qalat Tadmor, or Qalat ibn Ma'an) was originally built during the Ayubid era (12-13th century) and then reconstructed and extended by the Lebanese Emir Fakhr Al-Din ibn Ma'ani in the 17th century to prevent Ottoman encroachment. His plans were unsuccessful and he was captured and executed by the Ottomans in 1635. The castle was surrounded by a moat and only accessible by drawbridge. built on top, so tall that it seems to tower into the sky.
18
.
We decided to climb it tomorrow and see what we might find up there. We also agreed to stay
19
.
here for two or three days in order to see everything. We returned at sunset and as I see it
20
.
we have not yet finished with one percent. The wind blew stronger here with heavy rain falling until
21
.
10:00.
22
May 11
A nice and a cold morning. We were up at 6:30 and we decided that after drinking
23
.
tea, we would tour the rest of the ruins. Colonel Mockler is distracted
24
.
with taking photographs and he is constantly going from one place to another taking pictures.

Page 040


01
.
At 7:30 we mounted the animals to tour these ancient buildings since
02
.
it is not possible to tour them on foot. One would soon be exhausted. First we headed toward
03
.
another small temple not as nice as the others but built with massive and imposing blocks of stone. Afterward
04
.
we rode toward the high mountain with the huge castle on top. Coming to the foot of the mountain we began to climb it
05
.
step by step amid small rocks, gravel, stones, and the like, on which
06
.
one could slip. Up the mountain we went, traversing from right to left and left to right.
07
.
15 minutes later we reached to the top. Truly I have never climbed up such a high and difficult mountain
08
Tadmur Palmyra
and may it be known that I was on foot and not riding. Reaching the mountaintop
09
.
we saw the castle built on its peak with a kind of moat around it, deep, broad
10
.
and quite intimidating. I walked around the castle but I did not find an entrance. Perhaps
11
.
the ancients used to lower a drawbridge from the castle door to the mountain in order to enter or exit.
12
.
In case an enemy came they would remove the bridge and the castle would remain secure and inaccessible.
13
.
It also appeared that the castle had two doors, one at the head of the passageway and another,
14
.
taller than the first, twenty cubits behind it. A well is in the ditch and so impossible for one
15
.
to reach in order to look inside. It is quite an amazing thing. How were they able to dig this well
16
.
and raise water out of it from such a depth? The mountain is no less than 400 meters high to the moat
17
.
encircling the castle. And a final wonder is how they could have laid each stone on the castle
18
.
at such a height (no less than 200 meters). In addition the entire castle is built with large blocks of stone
19
.
although they are smaller than those on the columns. Truly this castle and the well leave one quite dumbfounded,
20
.
an extremely wondrous thing that one could not believe without seeing it with his own eyes. The present
21
.
Sheikh of Palmyra Sheikh of Palmyra, Mohammed bin Abdullah. , Mohammed bin Abdullah, who is no more than 32 years old, said that this castle
22
.
was built by order of Ma'ana bin Za'ida after the destruction of Palmyra and the imprisonment of Zenobia Zenobia: To be completed. , the Sultana
23
.
of these places. After being sufficiently astonished we descended the mountain and headed toward other places.

Page 041


01
.
So we continued to trek onward, always among boulders, until we approached a long, large chamber resembling
02
.
a tower. From a distance it appeared insignificant. Strangely enough, upon entering the chamber through the east door,
03
.
we saw something of such wonderful artifice and stone construction that one would be stunned.
04
.
Undoubtedly this chamber must have been the burial place of the ancients. It is perhaps 60 or 70 cubits in length
05
.
and equally as tall. To the north and south the chamber is partitioned into 12 compartments, resembling places for graves
06
.
or biers with a spiral stairway to the left in order to place them one on top of the other when the lower compartments
07
.
are full. A marble slab is above the door and engraved with inscriptions in both Greek
08
Tadmur Palmyra
and Palmyrene. Using binoculars Binoculars: (Pr.) Derbin is durbin (with و and ي) which is a Persian compound (dur meaning 'far' and bin meaning 'to see') used in Ottoman Turkish for 'binoculars'. This word is still commonly used in Iraq. because of their height, I have copied them in my notebook.
09
.
The outer construction of the chamber is nothing to make one suppose that such decoration will be found within.
10
.
Inside and facing the door human figures are carved, each with an extremely curious
11
.
script underneath. The ceiling is frescoed, engraved in color, and solidly constructed.
12
.
Inside are four stories: one underground, one at ground level, a third above it, and a fourth only used as a
13
.
mezzanine. This is a guess as to how it was. I could see a number
14
.
of visitors' names here and, by chance, in a corner on the left near to the door, written
15
.
with a light pencil and very difficult to read, the name Napoleon Bonaparte
16
.
written like this: Napoleon Bonaparte 1792. This date, that is 1792, is quite
17
.
ancient and deserving of amazement. How in all this time, 105 years, did it neither wear off
18
.
nor did the pencil writing fade? I also noticed the names of some people
19
.
we know: Faust Lorion and Coloman who was in Baghdad, Joseph Khoury
20
.
was engaged to Josephine the daughter of Aunt Medula, and so on and so forth. I too
21
.
wrote my name in many places. This inscription is found inside facing the door,
22
.
done by a Frenchman who came two years ago to study the ruins of Palmyra
23
.
and stayed for four months. He engraved this inscription on a stone in French:

Page 042


01
.
"Ici en 1895 la mission Bretone accompagnée
02
.
de Vizzavir Mourain et Bei[...]ard, passé le
03
.
printemps l'été emmurer à étudier les ruines de
04
.
Palmyre."

05
Tadmur Palmyra
and the names, F. Kinloche 1842, J.Ricot
06
.
Juillet-1895 Inspecteur de la dette publique,
07
.
and many others that I failed to copy in my notebook. When we left this place
08
.
I noticed that it was already 10:30. So I mounted the horse and rode back to the tents because
09
.
the weather had become extremely hot with a burning sun. On my way back I passed
10
.
a sulphur spring. At the upper end there was something like a hammam for washing and a number of women were bathing
11
.
inside. Its water is very clear and hot but not drinkable. The water of Palmyra is not
12
.
so good and it has a salty taste like well water. The heat became worse in the afternoon
13
.
with a strong simoom blowing. Because all the land here is sandy, the weather always turns
14
.
hot. I wished to bathe in the spring that is only a short distance from our place.
15
.
So I took my clothes and went. I found the water moderately hot and the bathing
16
.
place was warm and steamy. At sunset the wind blew much harder and it continued
17
.
like this until nightfall.
18
May 12th
A cold morning with a high wind blowing all night long.
19
.
The night was also cold like yesterday. We decided to
20
.
leave Palmyra today and continue our journey to Damascus. We will depart in the afternoon.
21
.
However, since we have not yet seen the other parts of Palmyra, with its huge temples
22
.
made with massive blocks of stone larger than the others, after tea at 7:30
23
.
we went toward the city and its environs to see these buildings. We arrived next to a great wall.
24
.
Its height towers to no more than 100 cubits and its foundation is 20 cubits in width.

Page 043


01
.
It is built entirely with stones that are much larger than any we had seen before. Next to the wall
02
.
columns larger than the others are erected and as tall as the wall. Here, amid the ruins,
03
.
the Arabs made themselves mud-wattle houses where they live. Finally we went towards a large gate
04
.
that must probably have been the city gate. What a sight. A person standing beneath it seems to be
05
.
the size of a sparrow. It is built like this: . Its height from the ground to the top is possibly 70 or 80 cubits
06
Tadmur Palmyra
and its width from one side to the other is no less than twenty cubits. It is entirely engraved and decorated
07
.
with impressive designs. How could a person be capable of carving such things on a single block of stone?
08
.
And the thing that amazed me more than anything else is the single stone, perhaps 25 or 30 cubits long, laid over
09
.
the top of the gate, extending from one column to the other. How could they have lifted this stone to place it
10
.
on top and so high? The construction of the walls is entirely of extremely massive stones.
11
.
I stepped off one of them on foot and found it 35 paces long and 11 wide. Then we went into
12
.
the heart of a temple, which they have now turned into a mosque for prayers, I mean only half of it. I found it magnificent.
13
.
It is built like a church. At its center there is a large inner temple roofed over with one single square marble stone
14
.
measuring no less than 30 steps on a side and completely engraved and carved. An indescribable thing.
15
.
Built in this way: this place was probably used for praying. Here one part
16
.
of the temple is roofed over with rock and has a stairway leading upwards. I climbed up and saw something
17
.
that boggled my mind. The stones with which this temple was roofed were, each one, no less than 20 cubits
18
.
in length and three in width. We continued wandering around these sites, regretting such a hasty
19
.
departure because one can never get enough of the view of Palmyra and exploring its ruins. Then we returned after
20
.
a thorough look around to our tents. The marketplaces are amid the ruins and one also finds here
21
.
about 1000 houses. Among the people of the town all the women ruin their looks with tattoos which
22
.
encircle their faces and on their chests. In Palmyra one also finds 10 or 12 orchards, most of them
23
.
cultivating olive trees and to a lesser extent apricot and apple trees. There are

Page 044


01
.
only about 20 or 30 date palms. All the plantings are irrigated from the existing
02
.
springs without which no one would have settled in these parts.
03
Tadmur Palmyra
Finally at 3:30 in the afternoon we prepared to set out. We mounted and left Palmyra heading
04
.
toward Damascus. After traveling three hours, at 6:30, we stopped because Colonel
05
.
Mockler did not wish to go any farther. Here the wind blew very hard and the weather
06
.
became extremely cold. This was the first time in our journey that we found it so cold. We pitched the tent
07
.
temporarily because we will be up tomorrow morning and finish today's journey stage. Today half an hour after
08
.
leaving Palmyra four zaptiye came to meet us. They were sent from al-Qaryatayn al-Qaryatayn: According to Musil, 'al-Zerjitejn', was a large Christian and Muslim settlement protected by the Rwala tribe until 1903. The settlement lay on the western slope of the Kehle mountain and the al-Nusrani ridge, with ample pastureland and agriculture irrigated by the Umm al-Qalajid spring. [Palmyrene, 98-101] , which lies
09
.
20 hours from here in search of Colonel Mockler. The Consul in Damascus The Consul in Damascus: The diarist meant the British Consul at Damascus.
10
.
sent instructions to the Governor of al-Qaryatayn The Governor of al-Qaryatayn: In 1908, this was Ahmad bin Fajjaz Agha. [Palmyrene, 101] that he should tell the zaptiye to go and welcome Colonel Mockler.
11
.
So they have come here inquiring after us. From Palmyra to here there were never ending towering mountains
12
.
on the right and left, higher than all the others we have passed. At sunset
13
.
the cold worsened but the wind dropped somewhat and I slept in the mule litter since there was
14
.
no use unloading the baggage.
15
May 13
A bitterly cold morning, as cold as could ever be, like the coldest days of winter,
16
.
with a strong wind blowing out of the west. We were up at 5:30, tied on the baggage, and then set out
17
.
from our stopping place heading for the zaptiye post of al-Baydha al-Bayda: A military station on the road between Tadmor and al-Qaryatayn. . We marched steadily among even, flat lands without
18
.
any rise or fall of the ground, but the cold weather that always killed us. I had even put on thick
19
.
woolen cloaks over my coat and riding outfit, but I was still dying from the cold. I was thinking that
20
al-Bayda
in Baghdad now they must be suffering from the heat and sleeping on the rooftops.
21
.
At 8:15 we came to the zaptiye post of al-Baydha and we dismounted briefly to breakfast and rest but without the tents.
22
.
Then in the afternoon we will resume our ride because our stopping place is very far and we will likely have to march all night.
23
.
al-Baydha is a barren desert with nothing around but a post that is the zaptiye's fort.

Page 045


01
.
No water is available here except for the water of a very deep well that is not potable except for the animals. At
02
.
1:15 in the afternoon we tied the baggage on again and prepared the caravan to travel
03
.
until we are unable to continue because our journey stage is very long. Thus we rode on under a burning sun and
04
.
severe heat crossing barren deserts and dry lands until 7:00,
05
.
that is to say, at sunset. Colonel Mockler wanted to stop here and sleep for a few hours.
06
al-Iqsayr
Afterwards we would wake at midnight and continue this stage of the journey. So we halted the caravan temporarily and pitched the tents
07
.
but we did not unload the baggage. Here the weather was somewhat better
08
.
than yesterday evening and not as bitterly cold. However the wind was always blowing
09
.
and it was cloudy with a moon that seemed 14 days old. Afterwards we hurriedly ate everything to be found whether hot
10
.
or cold and went to sleep at 9:00. This place is called al-Iqsayr al-Iqsayr: A small village slightly south of al-Baydhah. .
11
May 14
We woke up early, that is, at 12:00 midnight and then having
12
.
done everything in a hurry, we loaded the baggage onto the animals and set off at 1:15
13
.
to finish our journey. The morning was very cold and dry with a light westerly wind blowing. It was a spring night.
14
.
Truthfully we are growing very weary of our travels. We have had no rest from yesterday morning until now.
15
.
Moreover my health is much changed. I have a toothache that is very painful and it
16
al-Qaryatayn
became worse with the cold. We continued to march through the night sometimes going among tiny rocks and at other times
17
.
over flat barren land until the town of al-Qaryatayn came into view some three hours away.
18
.
Because of the low elevation it would vanish and then come into view again. At 9:30 we arrived and entered the town.
19
.
At its outskirts there are many nice orchards, most of them planted with grapevines, pomegranate trees,
20
.
and castor oil plants. Afterwards we came to lanes resembling the lanes of Basrah. We heard that
21
.
the Sheikh of al-Qaryatayn, named Fayadh, had invited Colonel Mockler to stay with him at his house.
22
.
Finally, approaching his house, Colonel Mockler asked us to stay with him. We entered
23
.
through the door. The house looked lovely, built with stone and white plaster.
24
.
We were ushered into the vestibule and we drank the sherbet they offered us. I found his house quite pleasant

Page 046


01
.
and well built. In such a small town one does not expect to find a house of this sort, with Vienna chairs Vienna seats: Seats manufactured by the Thonet Brothers Company, established in Vienna-Austria in 1849, for the manufacture of bentwood furniture. They received a patent in 1856 for creating furniture by bending steamed wood. Their designs were considered forerunners of the 'Art Nouveau' movement. ,
02
.
benches, and beds Beds: [charpaye (Pr.)] A form of charpa [char meaning 'four', and pa meaning 'foot'] which means, among other things, "bedstead". that have mosquito netting, and a perfectly appointed salon.
03
.
It also has 6 fine rooms and we settled into one of them. At noon they prepared a breakfast for us
04
.
which we ate with Colonel Mockler. The town is not unpleasant.
05
.
It has about 100 Christian houses. Their Syriac priest is coming to see us today to invite
06
.
us to stay with him. Everything is available here, from food to drink, but as today
07
.
is the continuation of the Muslims' feast all the shops are closed. After breakfast I napped for about two and a half hours
08
.
as I was desperate for a rest. God willing, little more is left for us
09
.
and we will be in Damascus the day after tomorrow. Thus we will be done with this accursed whirlwind
10
al-Qaryatayn
that lacks the least comfort and confounds our lives. In the afternoon we heard that Colonel
11
.
Mockler intends to take a different road to Damascus and not the common road which will prolong
12
.
the journey by one or two days altogether. In order to travel less each day. Truthfully we were quite paralyzed by
13
.
these upheavals and do not know when we will be done with this whirl. The Zhair family decided
14
.
to travel early tomorrow by the road that goes directly to Damascus doubtless arriving
15
.
the next day. In the afternoon we were pleased to visit the Syriac priest Ibrahim. We found his son
16
.
at the house. He is a married man with three children. Here all the people of the town wear the 'akkal
17
.
and the kaffiyah, even the Christians and the priest's son too, who looks like a Muslim. So we accompanied him to their home and walked
18
.
through lanes that resemble the pathways of the buffalo in Baghdad. At last we arrived at the priest's house
19
.
which looks like a stable. A room is in it resembling a drawing room furnished with seats and some pillows.
20
.
Pistols Pistols: [warawer (Ar.)] In the Arabic diary, plural of warwar, a colloquial word that means 'a revolver'. and weapons hang on the walls with other quite laughable things. The priest, himself an old man,
21
.
is very poor and he looks like an Arab with both hands covered in tattoos. Finally when we rose to leave we asked him to show us his church. He took us
22
.
and we walked together from one house to the other until he came to a door like that of an old house.
23
.
Then he opened the church door and we entered. We found that it resembles the Chaldean school in
24
.
Baghdad. It is even the same size, with about six or seven pictures inside, some of which are torn, and a very crooked throne

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01
.
with four candles. But how strange. In all the church there was neither seat nor mat, nothing
02
.
whatsoever to sit on. When we asked the priest, he replied saying that those who wanted to hear mass would stand
03
.
and some would sit. However he is not to blame for this black poverty because the town is not even worth
04
.
seeing, though it has nice orchards. I found lots of grapevines here, filling all the
05
.
orchard fields, and poplar trees as well. After wandering the pitiful lanes we
06
.
went back to the best house to be found here. Qaryatayn
07
.
is small with about 2000 souls. At sunset today my molar hurt me badly
08
.
and I suffered intensely.
09
May 15
A spring morning and not very cold. This was the first night that we slept in a room built of stone.
10
.
From Baghdad to here we have always slept in tents.
11
.
We got up at 5:00 and waited for the Colonel's order to march. At last we tied on the baggage at 6:00,
12
.
left Sheikh Fayadh's house, and left the village heading
13
.
north, while the Zhair family took the direct route and went on to Damascus. We continued to
14
.
march among hills and mountains, over rough and stony terrain. We came
15
Maheen
across many Arabs from the 'Aniza tribe or Bedouins traveling from one place to another looking for
16
.
pasture land. They are abundant as worms in these places. Sheikh Fayadh too
17
.
rode with us to Damascus The Government of Damascus: The Ottoman authorities in Damascus . Yesterday he wrote a letter to the government of Damascus
18
.
informing them of Colonel Mockler's arrival and departure. We too took the opportunity and sent a letter with the messenger
19
.
to our dear friend Archbishop Basil in Damascus, requesting him, if possible, to find a house for us near his
20
.
where we might stay, as it would be better than going to a hotel. We continued to march on an unpleasant
21
.
road. The mountains to our left were growing much higher and at a distance ahead of us we even caught sight of a
22
.
mountaintop covered with snow. This is the Lebanon Mountain Range.
23
.
At 10:15 we arrived at Maheen Maheen: According to Musil, the village 'Mhin' was to the northwest of al-Qaryatayn on the road to al-Qastal. , a very small village. At the end of the village we met
24
.
Colonel Mockler and his escort who had decided to take breakfast before moving on.

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01
.
So we continued to march not knowing where we were going. We took the road leading to Hajra Hajra: A small village between Maheen and al-Qastal. , another
02
.
small village like Maheen. Then half an hour later one of the zaptiye who had accompanied us caught
03
.
up with us and said that we should take the north road to go to Hafayyir Hafayyir: A small village between Maheen and al-Qastal. and then
04
Hafayyir
to Hajra. So we returned once more. Having lost half an hour here we finally continued to march until
05
.
2:10, when we arrived at Hafayyir. We passed many orchards like those at Qaryatayn,
06
.
full of grapevines more than anything else. We then set up camp near a small river that flows
07
.
from a far-off spring, finding ourselves surrounded by high mountains. In the afternoon
08
.
I want to go and see the streets and the church since all the people
09
.
of this village are Jacobite Christians Jacobite Christians: In the 19th Century the Syrian Orthodox Church was quite marginal in the midst of a Muslim majority. However, they had strong ties to European philosophies and institutions. European ideas were translated by the Jacobites, putting even more pressure on the already decaying Ottoman Institutions. with few Syriacs and no Muslims or Jews to be found.
10
.
A priest named Salman oversees them. Hafayyir has only 1,000 inhabitants.
11
.
Its alleys are like those of al-Qaryatayn but their women dress differently. From Palmyra to here
12
.
the clothing changes entirely. They are dressed much like the Telkeyifi Telkeyif: A village in Nineveh province (capital Mossul) of northern Iraq, it is surrounded by farming lands where residents grow wheat and vegetables and maintain livestock. Several Telkeipian families have emigrated to the United States. They are also well known for their traditional dress. and all the men wear the 'akkal.
13
May 16th
A cold morning with a strong wind. At night we were hit by the powerful blast
14
.
of an easterly wind so strong that it pulled up the pegs of our tent and it collapsed on us.
15
.
The wind continued for two hours. This happened because we are between mountains
16
.
and the wind has no other way to go. Finally we got up at 5:00 and prepared ourselves to travel to the next station.
17
Dayr Setaam
After we tied on the baggage we rode west at 6:00. So on we marched
18
.
amid hills and lands, over rough terrain full of stones and gravel. An hour
19
.
and a half later we passed a very small, deserted village without one bird in it. This is Hajra. Its inhabitants,
20
.
which number no more than 300 or 400 souls, had fled fearing the Bedouin. We continued to
21
.
march until at 9:15 we came to a village called Dayr Setam. It is larger than Hafayyir with many orchards planted with nut and
22
.
almond trees as well as grapevines. Cutting through the village from one end to the other on horseback, I truthfully
23
.
very much liked its appearance with the springs of pure water, limpid as egg-whites "As clear as albumen": A local expression. and sweet as sugar,

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01
4000 souls in al-Nabk
flowing through its alleys with the poplar trees all green and casting a pleasant shade. Half an hour later
02
.
we left Dayr Setam Dayr Setaam: A village just north of Nabk, which Musil recorded as Dayr 'Attiyye in 1912. [Palmyrene, 223] . Here too all its inhabitants are Jacobite and Syriac Christians.
03
.
The town of al-Nabk al-Nabk: [Nebk] A large village on the road to Damascus. Nabk was on the nothern edge of the She'eb al-Loz mountain range and was reportedly surrounded by orchards and a large spring. [Palmyrena, 223] , to which we intend to travel, became visible from here with its orchards extending out to an hour's distance. Holding
04
.
to our path, at 12:30 we came to the orchards of al-Nabk. Truly the prospect of it
05
.
from afar is pleasant as though it were some European construct. Afterwards we set up camp 15 minutes from the village near a stream of spring water.
06
.
The taste of the water here is quite fresh and sweet and much better than Baghdad's river water.
07
.
In al-Nabk a quarter of the inhabitants are Jacobite and Syriac Christians and
08
.
there are two Syriac priests in this place. One of them is the brother of Father Ibrahim, the priest at al-Qaryatayn. His name is
09
.
Parson Butros. He is a tall man with a gloomy face. The other is Father Hanna, the nephew of
10
.
Farida al-Nakasha in Baghdad. But what a priest!
11
.
He makes one die from laughter. He looks like a Telkeyifi and is extremely humble. They both came to visit us in the evening.
12
.
There is also an English Protestant priest named Mr. Stewart,
13
.
Irichman Mr. Stewart. He has been in al-Nabk for two years
14
.
and has opened a school where he teaches English. There is a location here for telegraphs
15
.
to Baghdad, Aleppo, and other places. We noticed that the middle part of the road
16
.
was leveled so that carriages coming from Damascus going to Aleppo and Baghdad could cross. We saw
17
al-Nabk
three or four of them coming and going. Extremely high mountains surround us here.
18
.
At sunset we were hit by a high dusty wind that tormented us and the weather became cold.
19
May 17
An extremely cold morning, colder than all the previous mornings.
20
.
The night was severely cold too. We were up at 5:00 and prepared ourselves to march. At
21
.
6:00 we rode toward the last stopping place of our journey. We will reach Damascus tomorrow afternoon, God willing,
22
.
and we will be done with the road and journeys in the deserts. We marched
23
.
steadily between mountains but on the carriageway especially built to level the road.
24
.
At 8:15 we passed on our left a small village with about 500 or 600 souls

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01
.
and a few trees. It is called al-Qastal al-Qastal: A village one day's march south of al-Nabk and on the western edge of al-Qabbaas, part of the She'eb al-Loz mountain range. [Palmyrena, 224] . Here the mountains are much higher and more numerous.
02
.
The land is very different from Iraq. At last we reached
03
.
the village of Qatif Qutayyif: A village south of al-Qastal on the road to Damascus. at 1:45 in the afternoon after an extremely exhausting march. About 12
04
.
zaptiye came to meet us when we were one hour away. They were sent by the Wali of Damascus Wali of Damascus: Wali Husayn Nadhoom was the governor (wali) of Damascus in 1897. to greet Colonel Mockler. We approached the town and
05
.
entered an old khan which is about 300 years old but still solid. We pitched the tents in
06
al-Qutayfa
the courtyard. A mineral bath is near our stopping place. I decided to bathe there in
07
.
the evening. I also wanted to tour the orchards so I took one of the khan's people with me and
08
.
wandered around. I found the orchards very nice and planted with all kinds of fruit trees: plum, fig,
09
.
apricot, grape, peach, almond, and nut, but with only one olive tree. I returned at sunset.
10
.
We inquired one more time about the bath near our place and they said that it is no more than ordinary water that is heated. So I
11
.
did not go to bathe there.
12
May 18
A pleasant morning with absolutely no cold and the weather was warm. Like yesterday,
13
.
we were up at 5:30 and we prepared to march to our last stopping place, which is Damascus. God be praised, we have finished
14
.
with all the troubles of the road. We moved out with the caravan at 6:00, always traveling on the carriageway
15
Damascus
until we entered a large valley that took two hours to cross, called Boughaz Boughaaz: Boughaz is a Turkish word meaning 'straights' or 'throat' and most likely was the name of a valley. .
16
.
When we emerged from the Boughaz, Damascus and its extensive orchards came into view in the distance. What
17
.
a pleasant sight! We continued to march always in view of Damascus, which grew nearer and nearer. At 9:30 we entered
18
.
the first of its orchards four hours from the town.
19
.

20
.
THIS PLACE IS CALLED al-Qusayr al-Qusayr: A village with ample pastureland and an inn (khan) north of Damascus. , it is a lovely sight resembling a long covered walkway with green poplar trees
21
.
but mostly with large olive trees on both sides shading one from the sun.
22
.
There are several hamlets here and the grass is extremely verdant and better than anything
23
.
we have seen before. We continued to march for about two hours and then arrived at a shaded path

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01
.
they call Duma Duma: [Dooma, Dumar] A large town on the outskirts of Damascus noted for extensive orchards. . The people of the town, farmers and workers, are continuously bustling
02
.
about and carriages came and went every few minutes. Truthfully I loved
03
.
the entrance to Damascus very much because it is very joyful and cheers the heart. In the end we continued to travel until
04
.
1:30 in the afternoon when we caught sight of the first building in Damascus, the military hospital. But oh, what
05
.
a pleasant and joyful place! The Military Barracks Kishla: A Turkish word meaning 'military barracks' in Syria and 'hospital' in Egypt. building is constructed in the European style. This is the first time I have seen
06
.
such style and workmanship. We then arrived at the town gate called Touma Tooma: One of eight extant gates to the old city of Damascus, Thomas' Gate (Bab Tooma, or Bab Touma) is on the north-east corner of the old of the city of Damascus. and to a garden
07
.
called Dar al-Darb. The people of Damascus come here with their women, their daughters, and others to enjoy themselves and
08
Damascus Damas
to eat and drink. I liked the orchard very much. Afterwards they said that Colonel Mockler decided
09
.
to camp here. We dismounted and entered the orchard to rest. Afterward we would take a carriage and go into town
10
.
to find a place to stay. From here we sent news of our arrival to Archbishop Basil and continued to wait
11
.
in the garden which is full of flowers especially large, fresh roses of all kinds.
12
.
There are many benches to rest on in the garden so we took a bench and continued to await
13
.
the arrival of our caravan. In no time a messenger priest named Salman Tabouni came from his Grace
14
.
Archbishop Basil, together with the Archbishop's guard and carriage, requesting us to come to his home. We got into the carriage
15
.
and it carried us along the passages and the roads of Damascus. I was truly astonished to find the town
16
.
built and arranged as such. Fifteen minutes later we came to the door of the Patriarchate and entered a large, spacious house
17
.
with fountains and marble structures. Archbishop Basil,
18
.
whom we had not seen for seven years, came to greet us and he seemed truly pleased to see us. It was clear that his heart was full of happiness when we entered
19
.
the diwan of his house. First we asked if he
20
.
knew of a place where we could stay. He replied saying: "This is impossible! You are invited to stay at my house and the baggage
21
.
will be brought here." We vigorously protested but he refused. In the end we were obliged to stay there. Then he
22
.
took us upstairs and showed us a room already prepared for us. As he had not yet had breakfast we went downstairs
23
.
and ate with him. He did us a great honor and was very generous. Later, we were very pleased to learn that
24
.
he had a number of letters for us from Baghdad. We longed for news from there.

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01
.
He also gave us a telegram he received nine days earlier from our family reassuring us of their health. We opened
02
.
the letters from Baghdad and read them with tears in our eyes. They had received our letters from Falluja
03
.
and al-Ramadi, as well as the telegram from al-Ramadi. My heart was filled with joy for the sorrow they expressed. At our parting
04
.
I also received letters from Louisa, Artin, Jamil Abdul-Karim, Antoine Guilietti, and others. I was
05
.
extremely delighted to hear news from Baghdad. At once we prepared a telegram to Baghdad saying: "Arrived Tuesday noontime.
06
.
All in good health. Missing you. Staying at Mr. Basil's house." We dispatched it without delay to the telegraph office since
07
.
our family must, without doubt, be very worried about us and the telegram will make them happy. Later we went down to the Syriac church attached
08
.
to this Patriarchate. We found it perfect. It is a very fine church, adorned with wonderful images and abundant decorations.
09
.
We listened to the prayers of the Holy Devotion to Mary. A large number of people from Damascus, both men and women, were also attending and they all
10
.
welcomed us strangers. At sunset we returned to our place through the door that leads
11
.
to the house. Our room is very fine. Across from it the Roman Church Roman Church: To be completed. with its dome and bell are visible. They say
12
.
this church is nice. Without doubt we must go and see it. We dined at 8:00 and slept comfortably afterwards being done with
13
.
the hardships of traveling.
14
.
I was up in the morning at 6:00 and thanks be to God, not preparing to set out
15
May 19
with the caravan and therefore extremely relaxed. After dressing I sent for a barber who arrived and cut my hair.
16
.
I changed one more time into the clothes I call formal dress. I wrote a postcard
17
.
to my dear friend Antoine Hubert in Beirut informing him of my arrival here
18
.
and my desire to see him which would be on Monday or the day after. I then sent it with the Patriarchate guard to the
19
.
post office hoping it would be dispatched after sunset today by the railway.
20
.
It runs regularly, twice every day, to Beirut and takes eight to nine hours to arrive.
21
.
That is a lumbering pace but the roadbed is still not prepared for a swift run. Afterwards
22
.
at 9:30 I took a person from here, I befriended, and went to tour the streets and the shops
23
.
of Damascus. I took a carriage and rode in the direction of a street called al-Hamidiyya al-Hamidiyya: Famous market in Syria that still bears the same name. , built in the European style, with perfect shops.
24
.
I went to some photographers' shops to see if they have

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01
.
photographs of Palmyra and Damascus. I found that they were well prepared and have all kinds of such things. In the end
02
.
I bought myself a cane and returned to our place at 11:00. At 1:00 in the afternoon, after breaking our fast,
03
.
we went to visit the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop Basil ordered his guard to escort us
04
.
every time we go out to the streets. They opened the church door for us and I found it
05
.
magnificent with decorations engraved in porphyry. I was astonished by such a fine church.
06
.
A wide mezzanine is above, as wide as 10 cubits, and it surrounds the entire church.
07
.
The church door is made entirely of bronze. I paced it and found that the church came to 80 steps in length and 44 steps in width. We finally left
08
.
in a hired carriage to tour around. So we rode around Damascus and passed hotels,
09
.
gardens. Near the end of town we saw the best hotel called
10
.
Hotel Basraoni Hotel Basraoni: To be completed. . It is perfect and a very pleasant sight. Later we went
11
.
to the Station de chemin de fer. It was time for its arrival from Beirut
12
.
so we waited to see it arrive at the station. At 4:00 we caught sight of it coming. This was the first time
13
.
in my life that I had seen it and I found it very lovely. We then returned to the Hamidiyya market
14
.
and went to a house in the Jewish quarter with a perfect salon. It is called the Sham'aya house Shama’aya's house: The historian Naoman al-Qasatli speaks of the Jews' palaces that were built between 1865 and 1872 in Damascus of which the house of Shamaya among many other houses saying that not less than 20 thousands liras were expended for each .
15
.
Entering the house we paid the fee of three quarters of a majidi and they opened the salon for us.
16
.
We looked inside and found it the most magnificent thing ever, outshining the Roman Church building.
17
.
The salon is entirely fashioned from porphyry and it has a ceiling that one would
18
.
find astonishing. The owner of this place, Sham'aya, spent 10,000 liras, ten thousand for this room alone,
19
.
and I would say it is worth much more than that. We left the house
20
.
impressed by its perfect construction and returned to our lodgings. Yesterday afternoon
21
.
the military physician, Doctor Majid came to visit us. We know him well and he was pleased to see us. Today I
22
.
saw Ali al-Kurdi al-Baghdadi at the market. He arrived 7 months ago.
23
.
It became dark with thick clouds and we feared that it would rain. At 6:00 and near sunset,
24
.
we left in the company of Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani, his wife, and daughter, and went out of the town past

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01
.
gardens that cheer the heart. We went to the loveliest of all the gardens in this place, called
02
.
al-Soufaniya al-Safanya: No reference is found. . Goodness. What an orchard! Inside we found it teeming with people, women too,
03
.
all seated beneath the trees with two streams running to the right and to the left. The women
04
.
stay here until 10:00 or 11:00 in the evening. I truly loved this orchard very much because
05
.
it cheers the soul. There is a lot of freedom in Damascus. Oh, how pitiful life is in Baghdad and the lack
06
.
of freedom there. At last we returned after a one hour walk and after sunset we made an evening of it at the home
07
.
of Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani. They received us with all possible kindness. He is a pleasant person as is his wife
08
.
and the rest of their household. We returned to our place at 11:00 and went to sleep.
09
May 20
A cloudy and rainy morning. After hearing mass
10
.
Khowaja Qarawani's family accompanied us on another tour of the town. We took a carriage
11
.
and rode through the quarter and among the markets. Afterwards we came to a neighborhood called al-Midan. At the end of it
12
.
there is another railway station and it is worth seeing. It is ornamented
13
.
as in Europe. We also went to a workshop where parts for the trains are made. We were astonished to see such works.
14
.
We then returned to al-Hamidiyya market to buy ourselves a few things and we entered a shop called
15
.
Christopher which truly warrants amazement. Inside one finds everything that one could ask for. I bought
16
.
myself a pair of yellow shoes, a shirt, and a straw hat, all for 5 majidis. We got out of the carriage
17
.
and continued on foot to have a better look at the shops. We went around from one place to the next
18
.
never ceasing to be amazed. In one shop I saw a Monsieur ...[illegible] who is married to Bao's daughter. He
19
.
recognized me and asked me much about Baghdad. We also saw Abdullah al-Zalqa who knows us quite well.
20
.
He knows Habib al-Ghanouji Habib al-Ghanounji: No reference is available. . He had been in Basrah and said he intended to go to Baghdad
21
.
in 30 days time. He asked me about Baghdad and Basrah. We passed through several markets from the jewelers' to the tailors'.
22
.
At the tailors' market we entered a bath worth seeing called al-Ashani al-Ashani: No reference is available. .
23
.
Inside we found an indescribable vase and the bath floor is made entirely of marble

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01
.
as are the walls and ceilings. After tiring of walking we returned to our place and there,
02
.
before our breakfast, Monsieur Elia arrived, the interpreter for the Austrian Consul. He returned our papers and passport.
03
.
Yesterday my father had been to see the Austrian Consul, Monsieur Rontopoulo. He is
04
.
the brother of Madam Kuwaydan, wife of our friend, who is the commissioner of the quarantine in Baghdad. In the afternoon
05
.
the wife of Khowaja Mikha'il came to see us and she took me and my mother to her brother-in-law's house. We sat with them
06
.
and then went to see a very pleasant house called the House of Lady Rosa the Damascene House of Lady Rosa the Damascene: (bayt Al-Sit Rosa Al-Shamiyah)in the Arabic text, no reference is available. .
07
.
We arrived, rang the bell, and they opened the door for us. We entered one small house and went from there to
08
.
another. What we saw next was stunning. All the fascinating decoration and Mosaique
09
.
work inside and ceilings are wondrous and amazing. It is said that this house had cost 20,000
10
.
liras. We left the house and went to visit the Church of the Lazarites Lazarists: A nickname given to the members of the congregation of the Mission that was established in 1625 by Saint Vincent de Paul because they lived at the priory of Saint-Lazare. . It was
11
.
very fine church with porphyry and indescribably refined workmanship. We left
12
.
and went back to our house. At sunset the Austrian Consul returned our visit and after
13
.
dinner we spent the evening at the house of one of the Damascene notables, known as the House of Abu Ahmed.
14
.
About 20 European European: In the Arabic text, the word 'Franjiyat' (feminine, plural), has for meaning, the Franks or Europeans. From the Latin ' Francus'. ladies and young girls were there too, but some of them were Jews.
15
.
Then it rained for nearly 4 to 5 hours so we had to return in the rain. The weather has been unsettled and gloomy
16
.
from the day we arrived until this moment.
17
.
I was up at 7:00 because I was awake all last night. A sultry morning
18
May 21
and the clouds are still dark. After I changed my clothes we went with his Grace the Archbishop
19
.
to visit some families. We visited the house of the priest of the Patriarchate, Parson Boutros Parson Boutros: No reference is available. , and then
20
.
the house of Khowaja Mikha'il's brother. We also went to a place where they do
21
.
mother-of-pearl work on chairs and other objects, an extremely fine thing, and there were girls working too.
22
.
After that we went to Doctor Majid's house but we did not find him so we left our card.
23
.
Next we went to a house that contains a site, now a church, which they say is the place

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.
Saint Ananias Saint Ananias: Ananias: (Saint) a Christian disciple who lived in Damascus at the time of Saul of Tarsus. The Saint was born and lived in Damascus among an existing community of Jews in the city that was mainly occupied by an Arab merchant people at the time, called 'Nabateans'. A community of Christian disciples had thus grown up in the city and Saint Ananias was, as known, born in Damascus, where he also lived and was evangelized. He received a vision of Jesus in which he was ordered to find a man from Tarsus named Saul who persecuted the Christians, and cure him of his blindness, at the house of Judas, situated in a street called 'Straight' and this is where, in the cellar of this house, he laid his hands on Saul and thus restored his eyesight,and he also baptized the man who was later known Apostle Paul. The cellar at the house of Judas is the place where Saint Paul hid and worshipped. It is located at the Christian Quarter, at the end of Bab Sharqi Street, and is made now as a chapel. Apostle Ananias was one of 70 disciples sent by Christ to spread his Gospel. And it was Apostle Ananias who later saved Saint Paul and helped him flee from Damascus where his life was threatened, by putting him in a basket that was lowered over the city wall. But the refusal of Apostle Ananias to offer sacrifices to idols would later result in his martyrdom. (Memorial Day: 25 January). Wikipedia. to whom our Lord Jesus sent
02
.
Saint Paul to be healed when his eyes were hurting. Saint Paul went into his place and was cured. We went into the house and then into
03
.
a kind of cellar which is now like a small chapel and we saw Saint Ananias's
04
.
place. After that we left and went to the Monastery of the Latins Monastery of the Latins: The Latin church is the church of the West. and entered their church.
05
.
I honestly found this church the finest of all with large pillars and built in the style
06
.
of the churches in Europe. It also has an Orgue on the mezzanine which is as big as an average room. It is said that
07
.
it cost 1000 liras, but it is perfect. Later we visited the head of the friars Friar: The word 'Padrieh' is written in the Arabic text, a colloquial form for the French word'peres'or Italian word 'padre' . All of them
08
.
are Capuchins Capuchins: A religious man or woman forming part of the order of Saint-Fran?ois. and they have a school here. In the church I saw a marble slab
09
.
on the wall inscribed with the following: ``this is the shrine of the relics of Father Toma Father Toma: In the Arabic text, the phrase 'Padre Toma' is used and 'padre' is transcribed into Arabic. No reference is available. whom
10
.
the Jews killed in Damascus.'' I had read a lot about him. Together with the remains of the Father
11
.
are the remains of the boy named Abu al-Noor Abd al-Noor: No reference is available. who they killed at the same time
12
.
in 1840 to use their blood for the unleavened bread. After this tour we went to see another house
13
.
they described to us as the most beautiful in Damascus. We went to the house with Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani. It is called
14
.
the House of Khowaja Mikha'il Sabagh. Entering the house we were truly amazed by
15
.
the construction, the decorations, the fountains, and the gardens. Both Khowaja Mikha'il Sabagh Khwaja Mikha’ill Sabagh: No reference is available. and
16
.
his wife came and sat with us and treated us affectionately. Afterwards we left and returned to our house. Here in Damascus every
17
.
house has one or two fountains with flowing water. Every floor is paved
18
.
with polished marble and one never finds bricks. According to custom even the poorest of poor houses
19
.
should have flowers. For that reason all the houses are filled with different kinds of blossoms.
20
.
When I returned to the house I received a postcard from my friend Antoine Jule in Beirut
21
.
replying to my note. He said he was very happy to get my letter and would be very pleased to see me. He will also send
22
.
Razouk Bahoshi Razouk Bahoshi: No reference is available. to meet me at the station on Monday. After breakfast we hired a carriage
23
.
and intended to visit Colonel Mockler, fearing that we might leave without seeing him. We rode to

Page 057


01
.
the Grand Hotel d'Orient Grand Hotel of the Orient: . because we understood he was staying there.
02
.
We asked if he was to be found and they said that he was invited to the home of the English priest English priest: No reference is available. and that he had not yet returned.
03
.
We decided to go to a place called al-Salhiya al-Salhiyah: No reference is available. , an extremely beautiful area. We rode
04
.
past lovely green trees continuously climbing little by little. Then we arrived
05
.
at al-Salhiya on the mountainside. From here we could see the entire town of Damascus with the hotels
06
.
and buildings. A very pleasant sight. Afterwards we turned toward a place called Dumar Situated along the Barada valley and in the northwest, "Dumar" is one of the main areas in Damascus that the city planners developed in the later twentieth century and where newer suburbs were created. on a
07
.
long, straight wooded road. We then returned again to the place where Colonel Mockler is staying
08
.
but we did not find him this time either. So we left our cards and went back. By then it was 6:00. At sunset
09
.
his Grace the Archbishop fell ill and was in distress. He remains in bed.
10
May 22
The morning is pleasant and sunny. I was up at 7:00. We asked after the Archbishop
11
.
and they said that he is better and that they had sent for the physician. So we went to see him. Afterward Francis Francis Shiha: No reference is available.
12
.
Shiha visited, he is the brother of Khowaja Habib Shiha Habib Shiha: No reference is available.See note number 27, page number 005, line number 24. in Baghdad. Khowaja Francis had been in Beirut
13
.
just a few days ago. We gave him a letter of recommendation from his brother and he stood by us in everything. An hour
14
.
later my father and I went to a bathhouse for a wash. We arrived at a bathhouse called al-Misk al-Misk: Name of a bath. No reference is available. at 9:00.
15
.
It was a small, pleasant bathhouse. Around here all the bathhouses are very elegant
16
.
and there are 57 of them in Damascus but they have the awful custom of paving
17
.
all the bathhouse floors with shiny marble on which a person would surely slip.
18
.
Even my father slipped and fell when he entered, a fall that could have killed him, and blood gushed from him.
19
.
I slipped too but managed to stay on my feet. Then we both washed and returned to our house an hour later.
20
.
A Collectionneur de Timbres-poste stamps: In the Arabic text, the word 'Pul' is used that is a Turkish usage of a Persian word which seems to have meant ' a small coin '. It has for meaning 'stamp, either postage or revenue, also 'fish scale'.stamp collector: in the Arabic text, the French phrase (Collectioneur de timbres-poste) is written. who is very keen on collecting stamps [CONTENT] came to see me
21
.
and find whether I had any stamps to trade. I brought him some and we continued talking. He said that he would
22
.
return in the afternoon and take me to his house to talk some more. At that moment they informed us that
23
.
both Mrs. Mockler and Mrs. Tanner, together with Consul Mockler, will visit us.

Page 058


01
.
Five minutes later they arrived and were pleased to see us. It was as if we were on our overland journey. Afterwards they went in
02
.
to visit the Syriac Church next to the Patriarchate. As they were leaving they invited us for
03
.
breakfast the next morning and we promised to come. After breakfast, that is at 1:00,
04
.
the stamp collector came to see me and took me with him to his house. We traded some stamps and I returned at 3:00.
05
.
I wrote a postcard to my friend Antoine Jule in Beirut and put it in the post.
06
.
I told him that I will set out from here not on Monday but on Tuesday and that he should by all
07
.
means send Razouk Bahoshi to the station so that I might see him. I likewise asked him to tell me if he had any letters
08
.
addressed to me. I sent the postcard to Baghdad by post as I did all the letters
09
.
I had prepared. I also wrote letters to our family, Johnny, Jamil Abdul-Karim, a short letter
10
.
to my brothers in Basrah, and others, and postcards to Antoine Guilietti,
11
.
and Tal'at Nassouri Talat Nassouri: No refernce is found. . I paid 10 standard piasters Standard Piasters : in the Arabic text 'Sagh' is used to mean ' proper, standard, in order, right ' in addition that it means ' a rank in the army and police '. for them. Today we stayed indoors all afternoon and did not
12
.
go out. His Grace the Archbishop is feeling much better than yesterday.
13
.
A very nice morning with clear weather and a fresh wind. I got up at 6:30
14
May 23
and dressed. As today is Sunday we went down at 7:30 and heard mass
15
.
at the church. Afterwards we returned. Monsieur Francis Shiha came to visit us because an hour ago
16
.
we had gone to him and had not found him at home. So now he has come and asked us us to go with him but there is
17
.
little time left since we have to go for breakfast with Colonel Mockler. At 11:30 we took a carriage
18
.
and drove to the Grand Hotel d'Orient, Colonel Mockler's lodgings, but they were not there. However half an hour later
19
.
they returned from the Protestant Church. We ate breakfast and returned at 2:00 in the afternoon after bidding them
20
.
farewell since we might not see them again. Mrs. Tanner asked us to
21
.
come see her in London and Colonel Mockler did the same. We promised that we would come and see them and felt
22
.
truly sad to be parting after such a long time together. We returned and afterwards
23
.
went to visit Monsieur Francis Shiha where we saw a number of handicrafts such as

Page 059


01
.
antiques, carpets, and other things. He is very keen on old objects. We returned
02
.
an hour and a half later and heard that Archbishop Basil's brother, Archbishop Antoine Archbishop Antoine: No reference is available. ,
03
.
will honor Damascus with a visit tomorrow. So today they were preparing a room for him. Truly
04
Damascus
we felt embarrassed at staying here and having meals at his place. At 5:00 we went with Khowaja
05
.
Mikha'il Qarawani and his family for a stroll. So we went out through the East Gate and we passed through the gardens of
06
.
al-Safaniya Al-Safaniyya: No reference is available. and al-Hadi Ashariyya Al-Hadi Ashariyya: No reference is available. and others. The people here were as numerous as worms like worms: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897. . Thousands
07
.
of men, women, and children, bustle about enjoying themselves. And all of them are Christians
08
.
or most of them are Christians. It was so congested that that there was not even room left for the carriages to pass.
09
.
We finally entered a garden called al-Baghdadi Al-Baghdadi: No reference is available. and stayed there for about an hour.
10
.
Each of us paid two piasters. We returned at sunset and the number of people in the crowd was as many as grains of sand like sand: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897. ,
11
.
all coming and going. After dinner we spent the evening in Parson Boutros's room.
12
.
A very pleasant morning with clear, bright weather. We were up at 6:30 and after
13
May 24
dressing we went to Mikha'il's place. From there we went to a few other houses where there were all kinds of flowers
14
.
and other things. Because today is our last in Damascus we must prepare our things
15
.
for travel. After we returned at 10:00 we found his Grace the Archbishop in a muddle
16
.
making arrangements and preparations for his brother Archbishop Antoine who will honor us by his presence here this afternoon.
17
.
Today we did not leave or go anywhere. In the afternoon I sent a postcard
18
Damascus
to my friend, Antoine in Beirut, telling him that our travel plans had changed
19
.
and that we will arrive in Beirut on Wednesday afternoon because we want to visit Ba'albek Ba'albek: Situated east of the Litani River, Ba'albek that is named for the lord Baal of the Beqaa valley where it lies, is an ancient Phoenician city known as Heliopolis. It became a Roman colony in the first century A.D. and since that time continuous constructions were undertaken by the consecutive Roman Emperors to build and modify the sumptuous and monumental temples for their deities as it was a place of an oracle and divination from earliest times. Famous for three great temples of which the most important is the temple sacred to Jupiter Baal that is identified with the sun hence known in tradition as the Temple of the Sun, the other two temples are for the worship of the deities Venus and Bacchus. In the fifties of the third century, Heliopolis was known as one of the largest two sanctuaries in the Western world besides Praeneste in Italy. With the spread of Christianity, the Emperor Constantine and others succeeding him built basilicas using parts of the temples and their vast stone blocks. The Emperor Justinian ordered to have eight columns disassembled and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia. During the early Islamic period, the old city was a cause of argument especially between the caliphs of Damascus and then of Egypt. The Crusaders raided the city and it was three times shaken by earthquakes, however it revived in 1282 owing its fine architecture reflected in its mosque and fortress to Sultan Qalawun. In the fifteenth century, the city was pillaged by Timur. In 1517, the city was controlled by the Ottomans as the rest of Syria, though the Ottomans' authority was only nominal. It was once more destroyed by earthquakes in 1759. In 1840, the Ottomans were granted full authority in Ba'albek with the treaty of London. The digs started in Ba'albek in 1898 by order of the German Emperor Wilhelm II who while traveling to Jerusalem, passed by Ba'albek and was very impressed by the monumentality and beauty of the ruins though earlier in the 18th century interested archeologists had made engravings and documentation of the ruins. which is famous
20
.
for its ancient buildings and that we will set out tomorrow morning. Also we received
21
.
a telegram from Shukrullah 'Aboud Shukrullah 'Aboud: No reference is available. in Beirut, saying, "Awaiting your arrival at the station."
22
.
We wrote him a letter two days ago asking him to let us know of
23
.
a suitable hotel where we could stay. So we wired him right away saying, "We will be

Page 060


01
.
with you on Wednesday evening. Thank you." We also sent a letter telling him about our travel
02
.
to Ba'albek and Beirut. At 4:30 in the afternoon Archbishop
03
.
Basil went to greet his brother with the priests. A few minutes later they returned and ushered him in with a great procession
04
.
accompanied by many people. Archbishop Antoine is an old man, seventy years old
05
.
possibly. After church, that is at 6:30, Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani took me to al-Hadi Ashariyya garden
06
.
which lies between two rivers and boasts a pleasant view.
07
.
At sunset we returned. This was the last time I would walk in Damascus because
08
.
we will take the train to Zahla tomorrow morning. Truly it is a pity
09
.
to leave Damascus. We loved it very much.
10
.

11
.


12
.
WE GOT UP early and began to prepare. We packed our things to travel on
13
May 25
the Train leaving in an hour and a half.
14
.
We changed our clothes and removed everything in our room. We were ready to leave Damascus,
15
.
which I had truly loved very much. Oh, if only one lived here. Since the day of our arrival
16
.
until now all the people have been pleasant with smiling faces. After
17
.
hearing mass for the last time I left and we brought our things down
18
.
from the room and put them into a carriage. All of the priests were present, the two Archbishops,
19
.
and also Khowaja Mikha'il Qarawani and his wife. We bade them all farewell and felt quite sad at parting with them
20
.
because they had all become like family to us. After we thanked them for their kindness
21
.
the carriage drove us to the railway station at al-Baramika al-Baramika: The Damascus railway station that traveled between Damascus and Beirut. .
22
.
We arrived at the station at 7:30 and bought a second-class Billet to Zahla Zahla: [Zahlé] A city in central Lebanon, noted for its orchards, vineyards, and arak. only.

Page 061


01
.
We also paid our fare, that is no more than 7 and a quarter majidis total for three people.
02
.
From Zahla we would take a carriage to Ba'albek. Then at five minutes to eight
03
.
the train gave a whistle and we immediately boarded. We were accompanied by our servants Mansour
04
.
and the water carrier Mohammad who had come with us from Baghdad. We bade them farewell here. Truly
05
.
we found it very difficult because they were the last who had been with us from our hometown Baghdad.
06
.
All of us were in tears and poor Mansour was crying like a little boy. In the end we said goodbye
07
.
and the train set off from al-Baramika. We traveled continuously at maximum
08
.
speed. This is the first time I ever traveled in a train. We passed through
09
.
orchards, trees, and springs that make a truly pleasant view. I believe
10
Traveling from Damascus
their like is not to be found in Europe. Sometimes we ascended and at other times descended because we must
11
.
climb the mountains of the Lebanon. The mountains here are very high and the snow lies on them
12
.
and the clouds rise like white steam over them. The time from morning until now
13
.
was quite miserable with thick clouds and damp like the worst and darkest days of winter. The train
14
.
left al-Baramika at 7:55 and we passed the following stations on the way:
15
.
Baramika 7:55 / Dumar 8:10 / Hama 8:20, departing at 8:25 /
16
.
Jadayda 8:33, departing at 8:35 / Ayn Fija Ayn Fija: A town in Syria, about ten miles northwest of Damascus. 8:45, departing at 8:57 / Dayr Qanun Dayr Qanun: A village in southern Lebanon. 9:05 /
17
.
Souk Wadi Barada Souk Wadi Barada: The small village of Souk Wadi Barada (28 km) stands on the site of the ancient Hellenistic town of Abila. 9:20, departing at 9:22 / un-named 9:30, departing at 9:35 / Zabdani Zabdani: A city in southwestern Syria, close to the Lebanese border. It is in the center of a green valley and surrounded by mountains. The scenic view and mild climate have made it a popular tourist destination. 9:55, departing at
18
.
10:03 / Sergayah Sargayah: A town in Lebanon along the railway between Damascus and Beirut. 10:25, departing at 10:28 / Yahfufah Yahfufah: A town in Lebanon along the railway between Damascus and Beirut. 10:43, departing at 10:47 / Riyaq Riyaq: A town in Lebanon, near the city of Zahla. There is still an old train station on the former line between Beirut and Damascus. 11:07, departing at
19
.
11:12. We arrived at Zahla at 11:30. It is also called Mu'allaqah Mu'allaqah: Another name for the town of Zahla, located in Beqqa, Lebanon. . Since we arrived
20
.
close to noon we thought it preferable if we have lunch
21
.
here because the Buffet de Gare is just opposite. The people from the Buffet met us
22
.
and took our things to the eating place. We ate hastily and then hired a carriage
23
.
to Ba'albek and back for one Ottoman lira. We entered
24
.
and at 12:05 drove in the direction of Ba'albek. However the weather was extremely unfortunate. The rain never ceased to worsen, the clouds

Page 062


01
.
were heavy, and it was quite damp with a westerly wind. Here as we understood it, in all seasons
02
.
of the year the weather is like this. It is because the mountains of the Lebanon surround it on all sides.
03
.
The carriage continued on and we passed very pleasant scenery in the distance, such as a few
04
.
hamlets at the foot of the mountain amidst greenery and meadows. An extremely happy and blissful life. The climate
05
Ba'albek
here one finds nowhere else and I suppose that no one ever falls ill. When we were having lunch at the station
06
.
a train from Beirut arrived, departing at noon for Damascus. We saw it from the carriage
07
.
in the distance swiftly passing like wind. What a lovely sight. Sitting in a train is extremely
08
.
comfortable and one does not feel either shaking or annoyances but sometimes, because of the speed of travel,
09
.
one's vision is blurred and so cannot see the land. However the carriage we rode in is very
10
.
annoying because the road is made of small stones. We came to a place they call
11
.
Ablaha Ablaha: A town about 30 km northeast of Ba'albek, Lebanon. at 1:00, then to Bayt Shima Bayt Shima: A town in Lebanon. at 2:05. Finally we arrived in Ba'albek
12
.
at 4:30. The ancient temples became visible from a distance resembling the pictures we have
13
.
in Baghdad. First there were the eight pillars that the Arabs had made some years ago
14
.
and the massive stone which the ancients did not bring to the site. It is quite a huge thing, possibly 15 meters long.
15
.
Hotel owners met us at the town gate and each claimed, "My hotel
16
.
is the best." In the end we chose one across from the ruins named Hotel Victoria Hotel Victoria: A hotel located near the ancient Roman ruins at Ba'albek in Lebanon. This large and well-preserved ancient temple complex was once known as the Heliopolis. .
17
.
We left our bags and drank a bowl of tea because we were very cold from the road
18
.
and shivering. Then we took a man from the hotel with us and left to tour Ba'albek, the ancient ruins
19
.
that resemble Palmyra. We paid the 3 majidis admission fee and entered. Then we saw something
20
.
we had never seen before. One's mind is amazed by what the hands of the ancients have wrought. As for the building,
21
.
it is made of great, huge blocks of stone. I saw a wall constructed in three segments, each one
22
.
possibly 20 meters long and the pillars, also amazing, are each possibly 50 meters
23
.
high and are all just in three segments of stone. I mean, like this: I measured the circumference of one and it came to

Page 063


01
.
13 feet. I mean, like this: Oh my, what a huge thing, such that a person's mind cannot grasp it. And there are other
02
.
amazing things. Near the door there is a stairway leading upwards.
03
.
I climbed it and counted 22 steps made from just one rock. Here I saw neither
04
.
hundreds, nor thousands, but millions of the names of people who had visited Ba'albek.
05
.
Some of these are of the nobility and some had come bringing with them tools to inscribe their names.
06
.
One sees all the walls strewn with names. We entered
07
.
Temple de Jupiter first and
08
.
Temple du Soleil second. In truth Ba'albek is worth remembering for the refinement of its construction,
09
.
its loftiness, and vastness. I was truly amazed by what I saw in this place. It certainly
10
.
is far superior to Palmyra or any other place. I wish to see more of it but tomorrow morning we intend to return to
11
.
Zahla and then by train to Beirut. The hotel
12
.
where we are staying is quiet and small. It is also across from the ruins of Ba'albek.
13
.
We decided that tomorrow morning we will return by carriage to Zahla in order to take the train back to
14
.
Beirut. A dark and rainy sunset.
15
.
I got up in the morning at 6:00. It was very cold.
16
May 26
It had rained all night long with hail and wind but then it cleared at dawn. After
17
.
we had tea we asked the hotel owner to present the bill and he said,
18
.
"Ten francs." So we paid him and left. We boarded a carriage heading
19
.
toward Zahla. We traveled continuously amid mountains. The weather was severely cold and the mountains of
20
.
the Lebanon which surrounded us were draped in snow, an extremely pleasant sight as were
21
.
the greenery and houses among the valleys. Here the climate is very
22
.
good. Finally at 9:45 we arrived at a small house called Bayt Shima.
23
.
We stopped there, went to the house, and saw them working with silkworms. We also saw

Page 064


01
.
that they have about 500 huge round trays filled with worms. Afterwards we got back in the carriage
02
.
and arrived at a place called Karak Karak: A city in Jordan, famous for its large 12th century crusader castle. an hour later. They say that it is
03
.
Noah's place, that is to say, his tomb. We finally arrived at Zahla at 11:00 and found
04
.
that the train had not yet arrived from Damascus. So we went to have breakfast at the Buffet.
05
.
Afterwards we would get coach tickets. At 11:30 the Damascus train arrived.
06
.
How wonderful! Colonel Mockler, his wife, and Mrs. Tanner, came out of the train.
07
.
What a marvelous coincidence. So they too ate with us and as it was 11:45 we bade them goodbye
08
.
and rushed to board the train. Colonel Mockler said that he would be going from here to
09
.
Ba'albek and would be in Beirut tomorrow. At 12:00 sharp the train
10
.
moved off rapidly. At 12:15 we arrived at Sayed Nayel Sayed Nayil: A town in central Lebanon. , then came to Jaditha Jaditha: A town in central Lebanon, near Zahla. ,
11
.
Ashtora Ashtora: A town in central Lebanon. at 12:30, departing at 12:33, to Rijat Rijat: A town in central Lebanon. at 12:52, departing at 12:55. At
12
.
1:25 the train entered a hole in the mountain, that is to say, the mountain which is pierced through at its foot. We went in and it was
13
.
as dark as a pitch-black night. We stayed in the Tunnel for about three minutes.
14
.
At 1:32 we stopped and put the Locomotive at the rear because it would be all downhill.
15
.
From Zahla to here we were always climbing until we reached a height of 1500 meters and all the houses
16
.
and trees appeared to be growing smaller. We were seeing the orchards that looked like bouquets of flowers
17
.
and the people like flies. Likewise the clouds were far below us. Here the clouds
18
.
cover us as if we were in a sea. What a beautiful view there is from here high up in the mountains of Lebanon.
19
.
I do not think there is anywhere in the entire world with a view so pleasant. At 1:35 it departed
20
.
going backwards down the track. In truth when I realized it was going to descend
21
.
from such a height my head was spinning. 1:56 Ayn Safr, departing at
22
.
2:03 / 2:15 Bahamdun Bahamdun: A town in Lebanon, historically linked to Beirut by railway. Today this resort town is a popular tourist destination.. , departing 2:17 / 2:37 Alay Alay: [Aley] A town in Mount Lebanon meaning 'high place' in Aramaic; historically connected to both Damascus and Beirut by railway. , departing at 2:45 /
23
.
3:00 Araya Araya: A town in the Baabda District of Lebanon. , departing at 3:07 / 3:22 Jumhur Jumhur: A town in Lebanon. , departing at 3:27 / 3:40 Babade Babade: [Baabda] A town in Mount Lebanon. , departing at 3:45.

Page 065


01
.
From here the town of Beirut became visible in the distance and the sea too, but it was quite
02
.
far away. 3:57 Hadath Hadath: This is a town near the Taurus Mountains in southeastern Turkey; the historic center of the Syriac Orthodox Church. , departing at 4:00. This is the last station before Beirut.
03
.
So I kept looking out the window until the train whistled and at
04
.
4:15 and pulled into the Beirut railway station. Then what a joyful sight it was when I saw behind the railing my dear
05
Beirut Beirut
friends Antoine Jule and Razouk Bahoshi, with Bahjat Nassoury between them. They called out
06
.
to me and I responded to them with greetings. No sooner had the train stopped than I got off, went
07
.
to the railing, and embraced them. I was truly very happy to see them and I remembered when I was
08
.
in Baghdad among my dear ones. Then we immediately got in a carriage. We also saw
09
.
Khowaja Shukrullah 'Aboud here at the station awaiting our arrival. So both my mother and my father got into
10
.
a carriage with him and I with my friends. We all rode together toward a hotel where we would spend our days in
11
.
Beirut. We came upon a hotel called Hotel D'Amérique. We took
12
.
two rooms for a few days, one for me and the other for my parents. This hotel is across from
13
.
my friends' place so I was very happy with this good luck. We rented the rooms for 18 francs a day
14
.
for the three of us. After I brought my friends to my room we talked at length about Baghdad.
15
.
Antoine gave me three letters that arrived from Baghdad, one from Antoine Guilietti,
16
.
one from Johnny Kasperkhan, and the last from Jamil Abdulkarim. I opened and read them and was pleased
17
.
to hear news from our homeland. My letters from al-'Ana had all reached them
18
.
and there was no recent news. At 6:00 they left my place and promised me that after dinner
19
.
they would come and spend the evening with me. I was quite astonished by Beirut and by
20
.
its layout, which is many times more beautiful than Damascus, with its buildings like Europe.
21
.
The carriages are as abundant as worms. It is said that there are 1500 and in Damascus
22
.
there are no more than 250. The streets are wide, paved, and clean. Here for the first
23
.
time, I saw the sea and what a pleasant sight. There were a few ships in the harbor,

Page 066


01
.
one of them a French warship which is always anchored here on guard. After
02
.
dinner my friends came to see me and I spent some hours with them. Our hotel
03
.
is lovely and the view from it is quite pleasant opening out onto a large open square. This place is called
04
.
Sahat al-Burj (Tower Square). Nonetheless, I have not yet seen anything of Beirut and for that one would need
05
.
lots of time.
06
.
I got up in the morning and saw that the weather was very good, spring-like with lovely clear skies.
07
May 27
After I changed my clothes I went to mass with my mother at
08
.
the nearby Church of the Lazarists Church of the Lazarists: The Congregation of the Mission (called CM by the Catholic Church) is an order of priests. They are popularly known as the Lazarists or Vincentians because they claim St. Vincent de Paul as their founder or patron. because today is Ascension Day. I found
09
.
the church very nice and full of people, that is, with only about 10 percent men and the rest
10
.
women and girls. It was so full of people that there was no place to sit.
11
.
The women sat on the ground floor and the men above in the balcony, and the youth had come to take their first Holy Communion.
12
.
They were about 200 boys and girls who came to take communion. The mass was administered by the Vicar Apostolic, who was present there. His name was
13
.
Monseigneur Duval, the one who a few years ago was the head priest at Mosul.
14
.
The crew on shore-leave from the French warship were also hearing mass. An hour and a half later
15
.
we left and returned to the hotel. Khowaja Shukrullah 'Aboud came
16
.
and took us to tour the markets since my father wanted to buy a few things for himself. I was truly amazed
17
.
by the markets, far better than those I saw in Damascus. They are all enclosed in crystal glass
18
.
and are clean and in good order. We bought a few things and returned close to noon.
19
.
At 1:00 my friends came and took me to their place. Amid the chatting we decided
20
.
to go to a photographer and have pictures taken of the four of us in European dress and hats, and send them to Baghdad.
21
.
So we went immediately to an excellent photographer and followed through with our plan but I was disappointed when the photographer said
22
.
that they would not be ready before next week. Next week I have to be
23
.
in Cairo. So he said that he would send them to me there and I agreed to this. We left

Page 067


01
.
the photographer's and together returned to our hotel. We sat and talked for about two hours. Afterwards my friends went
02
.
for a walk. At 5:30 Khowaja Shukrullah came and took us in a carriage to see the Port,
03
.
the ship anchorage on the sea, meaning the harbor. So we went there and what a beautiful sight!
04
.
Hundreds of women and men going to and fro and the ships at anchor. There was the French
05
Beirut Beirut
warship, the Frigate named the Forbin The Forbin: A frigate is a type of warship common in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. , on which they were playing music
06
.
and all the people were bustling about. Truly this place is pleasant from end to end and a beautiful promenade.
07
.
Here we saw someone from the Sursuq family riding in a carriage pulled by a horse, the like of which
08
.
I have never seen. Its color was half milk-white and the other half blue!
09
.
And they call this a horse! When it moves one is terrified by its power and gait.
10
.
We kept touring around Beirut taking pleasure from gazing at beautiful buildings along
11
.
the shore. After sunset we returned to the hotel. My friends came
12
.
over and spent the evening with me after dinner.
13
May 28
The morning is pleasant and the wind from the west. I got up in the morning at 6:30 and after
14
.
we changed we went to Khowaja Shukrullah's store. We took him with us
15
.
to the markets to buy some necessities. Afterwards we went with my father to a photographer's shop
16
.
to buy some pictures, but this fellow asked a very high price, so we decided to go to someone else.
17
.
We returned to our place at 11:00 and I went to my friends' house after breakfast. I got
18
.
Antoine and Razouk and we went in a carriage touring Beirut. We passed several
19
.
places I had not seen before and returned at 4:00. At 5:00 we all left
20
.
and picked up Khowaja Shukrullah. We hired a carriage to take us to a place called
21
.
al-Harash for a walk. It has truly beautiful scenery and abundant pine trees casting shade
22
.
over all the ground. Then we sat in a small garden called Janaynat al-Lubnan (The Garden of Lebanon).
23
.
We returned to our place at sunset. My friends came again to see me

Page 068


01
.
and as we chatted they said that there is a place here where they listen to violin playing or the
02
.
Orchestra. Then they said that it would be best to go and listen to the music. So we went at
03
.
9:00 and joined a gathering full of Europeans and other sorts. We listened to the music
04
.
which was very melodious. The players were five men and some eight girls, 18 to 20
05
.
years old and all skillful musicians. We stayed for about three hours and then returned to
06
.
our place. Today in the morning Khowaja Nicholas Mosulli, Razouk Angourly's partner in Basrah, visited us and invited us to breakfast on Sunday.
07
.
The morning is sultry and cloudy and the wind is unpleasant. After we changed we left,
08
May 29
my father and I, and went to a photographer's shop to buy pictures of Ba'albek and Palmyra.
09
.
We bought about 12 or more and by chance as we were sitting at the photographer's,
10
.
Colonel Mockler appeared at the shop door. We were truly surprised at these amazing
11
.
chance encounters with him everywhere we go. He arrived yesterday having stayed two days in Ba'albek,
12
.
and he will be traveling tomorrow to Port Sa'id on board of one
13
.
of the Lloyd ships. After we left the shop we went to the shop of
14
.
the Messageries Maritimes to buy ourselves tickets for the trip from here
15
.
on their ship that will depart at sunset after tomorrow. However they told us that it would not be possible now
16
.
but would be tomorrow. So we returned to the hotel and found Colonel Mockler at our place sitting with mother. A quarter hour later
17
.
he left. He bade us farewell at the end and said, "I believe this is really the last time." I took it upon myself
18
.
to hurry and write my letters for Baghdad because the post will go out today in the
19
.
afternoon, that is, on Saturday. So I wrote to Louisa, to Jamil Abdulkarim, to Nassoury
20
.
Bahoshi, to Antoine Guilietti, and to M'nashi and Nassim. I sent them by post in care of
21
.
Razouk Bahoshi. My friends had promised me that they would come after breakfast
22
.
get us and go to visit the College of Mar Yousif, or Université St. Joseph,
23
.
which is located here and is quite excellent. At 2:00 we all went with my parents to the college

Page 069


01
.
and received the headmaster's permission to enter. The Headmaster himself came and greeted us and then sent
02
.
a priest to show us the whole place. The priest came and took us around. What an amazing
03
.
school. There are three floors and I counted 120 steps to the third level.
04
.
Here we saw everything: the section for those students who are boarding, their sleeping and changing rooms,
05
Beirut Beirut
where they dress and sleep, their uniforms and likewise the school, the place where they study. We went down to
06
.
the printing house and the bookstore. I was truly amazed by the printing house because of the crafts
07
.
therein. There are about 100 persons working each at one thing. The entire
08
.
printing house runs on fire, steam, and electricity. They showed us everything
09
.
and then we went into the bookstore. I was astonished by the books I saw, possibly
10
.
...[illegible] of all kinds in stacks. Afterwards we saw their church which has three
11
.
floors, each level with a number of thrones for mass. The final was quite elegant.
12
.
I learned from the students that tomorrow afternoon there would be a substantial play
13
.
performed here to celebrate the Monastery Headmaster's Day. So I asked Father Shikho whom we know
14
.
very well and who was in Baghdad sometime ago, to ask permission for me to attend the
15
.
Tragedie and he promised to do so. We left at 6:00 having spent all this time
16
.
going around looking at this very large college. Around sunset
17
.
Father Yousif, who had been in Mosul, arrived, as did Khowaja Shukrullah and my friends.
18
.
After dinner we went to the Orchestra.
19
.
The morning was pleasant with a westerly wind. Since it is Sunday
20
May 30
we had arranged to hear mass at the Vicarage with Khowaja Shukrullah at the
21
.
chapel there. At 7:15 we hired a carriage and went to the Vicarage
22
.
to hear mass. Then we went inside with Khowaja Shukrullah to visit the Vicar Apostolic.
23
.
Since he was engaged he sent one of the priests who had been in Mosul for some 12 years.
24
.
Later on the Vicar Apostolic, Monseigneur Duval came

Page 070


01
.
and seemed pleased by our visit. However he is a very dull person and has no sense of humor so we said goodbye and left to visit
02
.
the home of Khowaja Habib Sakazan in return for his coming to us the day before yesterday
03
.
with his wife. They were at church but returned afterwards. Many guests were visiting them.
04
.
At 11:15 we went to the home of Khowaja Nicholas Mosulli for breakfast
05
.
there because he had invited us the day before yesterday. His house was large
06
.
with two floors. After breakfast I returned immediately to the hotel to find out if
07
Beirut Beirut
the admission ticket had come to me so that I might attend the Jesuits' play and I came across
08
.
the Carte d'Entrée all ready, brought to me by Razouk Bahoshi.
09
.
So I rushed off to the Université. I presented the card, entered,
10
.
and found about 1000 persons attending, together with the French Consul, Monsieur
11
.
Souhart, and the Captain of the frigate Forbin. At 3:00 sharp
12
.
the curtain was raised and the play began. It was entitled
13
.
La guerre de cent ans. However I found that they performed with an extreme religiosity
14
.
so I listened for two acts, then it turned 4:00 and I returned to the hotel
15
.
because I had promised to come back so that we might go in a carriage with Khowaja Shukrullah
16
.
and his family to the gardens outside Beirut. At 5:30
17
.
Khowaja Shukrullah came with his family and we went by carriage toward al-Harash and then turned left to an excellent
18
.
garden on a small river. Its name is Janaynat al-Pasha (Pasha's Gardens) but it is extremely pleasant.
19
.
Inside in the center, the Lebanese soldiers were playing music with quite lovely melodies
20
.
and the orchard was full of women and men, all dressed in European fashion.
21
.
There were many people from among the wealthy, that is, like the Sursuq family and other people
22
.
numbering about 30 or 40 persons all of whom possess millions. By chance just when
23
.
we entered the garden we saw Monsieur Monastersky who was

Page 071


01
.
commissioner at the Regie three years ago in Baghdad. He told us that he was going
02
.
to Istanbul. I saw that he was greatly changed and thin. After sunset
03
.
we returned to our place.
04
.
The morning is pleasant with scattered clouds. Today is the day we travel from
05
May 31
here to Port Sa'id. After we prepared our baggage people came to visit, such as the brother of Khowaja Habib Shiha,
06
.
Khowaja Ibrahim whom we had known very well when he was in Baghdad four years ago,
07
.
and also the Chaldean priest, Yousif Taweel. We learned from him that here in the Convent of the Lazarists one could find
08
.
a nun, the girl Theresa Maria, who is our relative from the Sayegh family.
09
.
Then mother wished very much to see her so the priest took her to where she was living and I stayed by myself
10
.
in the hotel. On her return my mother said that she had seen the nun who is named
11
.
Sœur Angélique Soeur Angelique: To be completed. and she had showed her all around her place. She was astonished by the
12
Leaving Beirut
handicrafts of the orphans. In the afternoon my friends came to visit me. They stayed
13
.
for a long time. Sœur Angélique came to visit us and brought along a number of photographs
14
.
and pictures to show us and we too did the same. I went with my friends
15
.
to the photographer who had taken our picture but found that he had not finished anything at all yet.
16
.
So I gave him my address in Marseilles so he could send them there. At 5:30 we ate
17
.
our dinner here and paid hotel charges of 92 francs. Half an hour later we left with
18
.
Khowaja Shukrullah 'Aboud, Antoine, Razouk, and Bahjat to customs so that we could board
19
.
the ship from there. They inspected our trunks, looked at the passport, and gave us permission to leave.
20
.
In short dealing with the Ottomans is all torment and lacks any civility. So I had
21
.
to say goodbye to my friends here. Truly I found this parting quite difficult because
22
.
for all this time in Beirut we were like brothers and of one heart. So my eyes were
23
.
filled tears at our separation. Then we boarded the boat and crossed to the ship. I did not stop
24
.
waving goodbye to them with my hat. Before we boarded the ship they asked for our passport again

Page 072


01
.
and did not allow Shukrullah to come up with us fearing that he might flee the country.
02
.
They are not allowing the people of Syria to travel to America nowadays because all the villages are deserted.
03
The Journey from Beirut
So before boarding the ship we bade Shukrullah goodbye and went up into the ship. And what a
04
.
huge ship it is, like a mountain. Its name is the Orénoque Orenoque: Name of a French Frigate,built in 1848, that served primarily in the Mediterranean Sea. and the Captain's name is
05
.
Sellier Sellier: The name of the Captain who sailed the ‘Orénoque’. . The stewards greeted us and escorted us to a cabin because we had taken
06
.
first class and paid 175,50 francs, meals included. I too had a cabin for myself,
07
.
all at this price. After we placed our things in the cabins we came up
08
.
on deck, that is, to third-class and I was amazed by this marvelous ship.
09
.
It has three sails and a salon containing 25 dining tables. At each table
10
.
12 persons can dine and there is a large piano in the front. The deck is 70 paces long
11
.
and I very much loved it.
12
.

13
.

14
.


15
.
AT 8:00 SHARP the ship Orénoque departed from the port of Beirut
16
.
and headed for the open sea. The town still glittered at us. As we left, slowly distancing ourselves,
17
.
the ship began to rock a little and I was afraid I might become seasick. I managed to get myself up on deck
18
.
until 9:00 and then noticed that my stomach was turning. The rocking of this ship is inevitable
19
.
because it is empty and not carrying much cargo. I went below and thought it best to sleep so I went to
20
.
my cabin and slept.

May


Page 026


19
ايار ١
هدا الصباح كان بارد ازود من كل يوم و يبان
20
.
كلما نصعد البرد يزود و الليلة ايضاً كانت بارده و ازود من البارحة
21
.
قمنا من الشويط ساعه -,٧ و مشينا على ارض عدلة مستوية و تشبه
22
.
اراضي بغداد لكن الجبال دائما على يسارنا و الكرود هنا تكثر على
23
.
شط الفرات و ايضاً جملة شواطي كبار موجودة بالنهر و في ساعه -,١٢

Page 027


01
الميادين
وصلنا قرية الميادين al-Mayadin: A town in eastern Syria built in 1868 on the right bank of the Euphrates River. It lies about 45 kilometers south of Dayr al-Zawr. The name means "field" in Arabic and it once a training ground for cavalry. al-Mayadi was a pricipal town in the Syrian desert and an important market for the exchange of goods with Bedouins. التي بانت لنا عن بعد ساعه ونصف وقبل كل شي
02
.
بان لنا توتاتها و لما اقتربنا عليها رأيتها بلد كبيره و كبر من جميع القريات
03
.
التي فتناهم ما عدى العانة و بعض بيوتها مبنيه على علو مثل الهيت
04
.
و لكن بنيان ازود البيوت لطيف بالحجار المحروق و الجص و ابوابها
05
.
كبار على العاده وهنا يقدرون يلقون كل شي من مأكول وملبوس
06
.
و الخبز الابيض و اللحم و غير اشياء و في ساعه ١ لقينا لنا مكان و نزلنا
07
.
به الكروان على جرف عالي و يابس و قدامنا شاطي للغاية
08
.
كبير و مخضر و من هنا بقى لنا يمكن ٨ ساعات الىالدير و انشألله
09
.
غداً صباحاً نسوق نحوه . لما وصلنا بعد الظهر اشتد حر قوي مع غيم
10
.
ممطر اسود فما لبثنا الى ساعه ٢ و الاّ جأتنا مطره قويه مع هواء
11
.
غربي اقوى ما يكون و غرقتنا جميعاً و الماء دخل بالجادر
12
.
و الفراشات صارت ماء و بقت تلمع و تقرقع قوياً الى مقدار
13
.
١٥ دقيقة فبعد نصف ساعه المطر انقطع و الهواء خف نوعاً ما لكن
14
.
الجول صار طين و لايمشى عليه و كثير هده المزنة ادتنا و نحن
15
.
في هكدا مكان لا به ملتجى قط . الهواء الى الآن لم يزال
16
.
مثل قبل لكن الجو صفى قليلاً و الشمس طلعت و اذا ردت المطرة
17
.
تعدمنا بالتمام و خائفون منها بالليل . و لما فتنا الميادين شفنا
18
.
على اليسار على قمة الجبل بنايات للغاية قديمة و اكبر من التي شفناها
19
.
البارحة و ردت اروح اشوفها لكن الوقت الملعون منعني و هده الاماكن
20
.
المبنية هكدا قديماً يسموها على قول البعض رحابة او رحابوت al-Rahabah: [rahabah, rahabut] A town mentioned in the Old Testament spelled Rah bout that was most probably built by Ninroud Bin Koush in 2000 BCE. It was one of the Aramaic principalities destroyed by the Assyrians upon the rise of their Empire. Today, the site is known as the "Rahbi Citadel" or "Rahba Citadel" or "Qalaat al-Rahba," an Arab fortress built by Assad al-Din Shirgoh who was the uncle of Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi. It was rebuilt to ensure the protection of the Euphrates route and to withstand Tatar and Mongol invasions. مثل ما مكتوبه
21
.
بالطورات و قديمة من ٢٥٠٠ سنة الى ٢٨٠٠ فحقيقة تستحق النظر و على
22
.
قول كرنل مكلر الذي شافها اليوم صباحاً يقول على بعض الحيطان موجود تصاوير
23
.
سريانية Syriac: Referring to the Syriac Christians, a community rooted in Near Eastern Christianity. The Syriac language developed out of Aramaic to become the literary language of the Aramaic Christians in the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire and further east in the Sassanian Empire. In the 5th century, the Nestorian schism and the Council of Chalcedon led to significant shifts in the Church. Ctesiphon became the capital in the East and Antioch in the West. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Syriac Christians formed distinct but not isolated communities in Syria, Iraq, and Jordan. ["Syriac" in Encyclopedia of Medieval Islamic Civilization] TO COMPLETE: REFERENCE IS TO SYRIAC LITERATURE مثل صورة سبع و آدمي تحته وغير اشياء فاني منكدر كون ما شفتها .

Page 028


01
.

02
ايار ٢
صباح بارد مع هواء غربي قوي و الليلة كانت
03
.
غايةً رطبة و بارده قمنا ساعه -,٥ و بعد شربان الجاي لمينا الاسباب
04
.
و حملناها على الدواب و سقنا ساعه -٧ نحو دير الزور و تركنا
05
.
ميادين ورأنا بنصف ساعه فمشينا على ارض مستويه عدله مثل
06
.
اجوال بغداد و دائماً سلسلة التلول على اليمين و هنا شفنا
07
.
الارض رطبة من مطرت البارحة لكن بعد مشيء ساعتين بانت
08
.
لنا الاجوال يابسة و المطره كانت نحونا فقط فسرنا تارة على
09
دير الزور
اراضي مزروعه و تارة على يابسة و في ساعه -,٩ فتنا على داك
10
.
الصوب شط خابور Khabur: Name of a river in Syria; al-Khabur [Nahr al-Khabur (Ar.), Habur Nehri (Tr.)] was an important tributary of the Euphrates River. It rises in the mountains of southeastern Turkey near Diyarbakr and flows southeastward to al-Hasakah, Syria, where it receives its main tributary, the Jaghjagh. It then meanders south to join the Euphrates downstream from Dayr az-Zawr. The Khabur (“Source of Fertility") has a total length of about 200 miles (320 km). The climate of the drainage basin is warm and semiarid to arid. The river has long been important for irrigating the fertile al-Hasakah region of northeastern Syria. و ما كان يبان لنا من بعد المكان اخيراً
11
.
ساعه بعد الظهر جينا على ارض مرملة و هنا اتتنا ظربة هواء و عج
12
.
و طوز حتى كاد يعمينا و بعد نصف ساعه فتناه ففي ساعه ٢ بانت
13
.
لنا بلدة ديرالزور عن بعد و بقينا نمشي الآن بين تلول صغار
14
.
حتى ان البلد تارة تختفي و تارة تبان . و حقيقة دخلني فرح
15
.
لما اقتربنا ببعد نصف ساعه لأن مشي الجول ١٧ يوم قد مسك
16
.
قلبي و دائماً بين العرب و ما نشوف من جنسنا و لما صرنا بعد
17
.
ربع ساعه بانت تماماً و كانها دخلت بغداد من باب المعظم Bab al-Mo'adhdham: The gate at the northeastern entrance to Baghdad. Originally named "Bab al-Sultan" in honor of the Seljuk Sultan Tagur Bek (1055 CE), the gate was demolished in 1923. The name was subsequently changed as the gate then led to the big mosque of Imam al-Mo'adhdham.
18
.
فهدا الوقت تدكرت الوطن و جميع ما بها . فكما كرنل
19
.
مكلر كان في رأس الكروان تلغاه من البلد الطابوراغاسي Battalion commandant: [(Tr.)tabura-ghassi] Tabur is a Battalion of about 800 men and ghassi could be translated here as 'leader'.
20
.
و رئيس البلدية مع ١٠ زابطيه Zaptiye: [zaptieh (Tr.), zabite (Ar.)] The 'policing' (zabita) in Ottoman times was usually carried out by companies of the janissaries and so was a military function. The Zaptiye was officially established by a 1869 Tanzimat Military Code which established a police force distinct from the army. However, because this police force was armed it came under the jurisdiction of the Military Commander in Chief’s Office and was organized on military lines with a company (bölük) of 200 men, battalion (tabur) of 800, and regiment (alay) of 3200, commanded by a Bölük Ağası, Tabur Ağası, and Alay Beyi. The individuals were called 'zaptiye'. The zaptiye were later called 'jandarma' (gendarmes). و مشوا قدامنا الى راس البلد . فجملة
21
.
اناس مع ولد و جم غفير كانوا في باب البلدة يتفرجون علينا
22
.
و فرحت كثير لما قدرت اشوف بين الصبيان كم واحد من
23
.
النصاره و قدرت احكي معهم بالعربي و اسألهم عن احوال

Page 029


01
.
البلد و غير اشياء و للحال قالوا لنا بأن لازم نفحص قبل الدخول انكان معنا
02
.
طاعون و لازم حكيم العسكريه يفحصنا فوقفنا جميعاً و طردوا الاولاد
03
.
و الرجال من حوالينا و اتى الحكيم و فحص كل واحد مننا بمد يداه تحت
04
.
الابط و امرأة ايضاً اتت لتفحص النساء و بعد كم دقيقة دخلنا البلد و لم
05
.
تزل الناس تتوارد للتفرج علينا و حقيقة شغلت التي عملوها بفحصنا
06
.
تضحك كثير لأن عملوها بنوع قشمره و الحكيم و الحكيمه فقط وضعوا
07
.
يدهم علينا و قالوا روحوا ما بكم شي فهده ايضاً من انواع شغل الاتراك
08
دير الزور
اخيراً بينما كنت احول نضري بين الاوادم من الواحد الى الآخر ظهر
09
.
قدامي رزوق دنحا الذي اعرفه كثير مليح في البصره و بغداد فكثير
10
.
فرحت لما سلمنا واحد على الاخر و تدكرت كاني في بغداد فبقيت احكي
11
.
معه و انا ماشي فافتهمت بأن كرنل مكلر معتمد يخيم في بستان البلديه
12
.
لأن رئيس البلديه عزمه و ما قدر يرفضها فاخيراً دخلنا بين السوق
13
.
الذي مسقف مثل قمرية البستان و جينا على درب طويل للغاية
14
.
و عريض بعرض ٢٠ دراع و على ترتيب اوربا مطبق و الف قاط احسن من
15
.
دروب بغداد و ابد ما يصير هنا طين بالدروب و يوجد ساقي على
16
.
طارف الحائط من مرمر يرشون به درب الطويل و يوجد ايضاً بجانب الساقي
17
.
مزروع كم توته صغار و يبان بأن هدا الدرب سيصير للغاية لطيف
18
.
مع الوقت . فوصلنا باب البستان فرأينا الدرب مرشوش
19
.
و اوادم العسكرية واقفون لنا و رأءيس البلدية استقبلنا بكل لطافه و دخلنا
20
.
في قبه مفروشه و مهندسه و هي الاوفيس فلما جاء الكروان
21
.
نصبنا جوادرنا بالبستان في مكان لطيف و البستان بها جملة عروق
22
.
رمان و غير اشيا مثل باقله و (....)١ “...”: Illegible word. . فعرفت هنا بين الاوادم توماس
23
.
اوساني Thomas Ossany: Ossany moved to the village of Amara in 1873 with his wife and six children where he was appointed a member of the Mejlis of Tamayyiz. In 1875, he was replaced by Fathalla Sayegh. [JMS-MM12:94; MM15:15] الذي جاء من بغداد مع رزوق دنحا قبل ١١ شهر

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01
.
و سألني كثير على بغداد . فبعد ما ترهدنا حبيت اروح الى الكنيسة لأن
02
.
قالوا لي بأن يوجد اثنين هنا و كما هدا شهر مريمي Holy Month of Mary: [(Ar.)al-shahr al-maryiami]The annual month of devotions to the Virgin Mary in May. رغبت بأن
03
.
اسمعه فأخدت الوالده و رزق و رحنا الى كنيسة الارمن الكاثوليك Armenian Catholic Church: The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic Church. Historically it represents a schism from the Armenian Apostolic Church. It is in full compliance with and subject to the authority of the pope in Rome. The Catholic Armenians have dioceses in many countries of the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. In 1928, the Armenian Catholic Church in Lebanon was administratively, academically, culturally reorganized. The congregation includes approximately thirty thousand people, served by about thirty priests and monks, spread over eight parishes. Despite a broad diaspora, the Armenian people maintain a sense of their national, cultural, and religious identity.
04
.
و رأيتها كثير لطيفه و مزغرة صغيره تمسك لا ازود من ٧٠ / ٥٠ نفس
05
.
و بها جملة صور و تماثيل لطيفة و حبيتها للغاية فبعد سمعان شهر
06
.
المريمي رجعنا الى الخييم و الغروب بعد العشاء اتى يتمسى عندنا
07
.
رزوق و كلفنا على الغداء عنده نهار بكره فعطيناه قول للمجي .
08
.
الغروب كانت رطبة و بارده.
09
ايار ٣
اليوم قمنا على المعتاد و شربنا الجاي و الليلة كانت
10
.
وخمه و الصباح كدلك ففي ساعه -,٨ رحتُ مع كرنل مكلر لنزور
11
.
كنيسة البارحة وزرنا ايضأ (قاس) قس الكنيسة واسمه قس
12
دير الزور
نرسيس و هناك كان ايضاً خوري يعقوب السرياني الدي هو
13
.
على طائفة السريان هنا فلما رجعنا قالوا لنا بأنهم يرغبون يزوروننا
14
.
فكرنل مكلر قال بعد ساعه يكون حاضر فرجعنا الى الخييم و بعد نصف
15
.
ساعه اتوا لعندنا رزوق و توني اوساني و بعده القسان مع سعيد افندي Sa’id Effendi: Archbishop Ignatius’ brother.
16
.
اخو مطران اغناطيوس Archbishop Ignatius: [Khoury Ignatius] The Assyrian priest traveled from Basrah to Baghdad on board Lynch Bros. Steamship. In March 1891, he gave Joseph Mathias two letters of introduction for his travels in Europe. [JMS-MM33:171, 172; MM44:5; MM35:195] الدي في بغداد وقد اتاهم كتابان
17
.
عننا و بعد نصف راحوا من عندنا لعند كرنل مكلر و بما انا راغب اروح.
18
.
استحم و اقص شعر رأسي و ازين اغتنمت الفرصة و اخدت هدومي
19
.
و رحت الى الحمام التي هي بيد انطون بن بتي البغدادي و لكن
20
.
قبل دخولي رحت لعند مزين فقص شعري و زيني و ثم رحت
21
.
استحم فرأيت الحمام لطيفه و مطبقه بالمرمر و حارة و بعد ساعه
22
.
رجعت الى مكاننا و رأيت قد اتوا يزوروننا توزه امرأه جرجوس و اخت
23
.
مطران باسيل Archbishop Basil: In September 1889, Basil wroted to Joseph Matthias informing him of the arrival of his neice Alice and her husband Captain Clements. [JMS-NA59:133] صديقنا الذي كان قبل ٧ سنين في بغداد

Page 031


01
.
و امرأة حكيم البلدية و هم كثير لطفأ و يحكون بتهدب و لسانهم عدب
02
.
للغاية فكانت ساعه -,١٢ و هم قاعدون بعد اخيراً قاموا و رحنا
03
.
حالاً الى عزيمة رزوق و هناك ايضاً كان قس الارمن يتغداء معنا
04
.
فعمل لنا خروف و بلاو و كبة موصل Kubba Mosul: (Ar.) A kind of meatball made of bulgur, onions, minced meat and spices. فرجعنا ساعه -,٢ و اغتنمت الفرصه
05
دير
لاكتب هده الاسطر و بعده طلعت لاتفرج على البلد و بالرجوع دخلت
06
ايار ٤
عند واحد اسمه انطون بغدي بغداسار الذي البارحة بوصولي الى هنا قدرت
07
.
اتصادق معه و هو رجل لطيف عمره يجي ٢٧ سنه و من اهل الشام و عنده
08
دير الزور
دكان كبير يبيع به كل شيء و عمل لي شربت و اشتريت منه مربة المشمش .
09
.
و بعده رحت مع كرنل مكلر ادور دائر البلد و رجعت الغروب و بعد العشاء
10
.
نمت .
11
.
صباح ليس بارد مثل قبل و الوقت احتر نوعاً ما و الليلة كانت
12
.
اقل بروده من البارحه فقمنا و شربنا الجاي و بعده اعتمدنا لنزور خطار البارحة
13
.
الدين اجوا عندنا فخرجت من البستان مع الوالد و الوالده و زرنا قس
14
الزور
نرسيس الارمني و هناك اتت قرينة اخيه جرجس دكران و بعد الحكي
15
.
الطويل خرجنا و رحنا لعند اخت المطران باسيل فاستقبلتنا بكل لطف
16
.
و جابت لنا مربة طرنج Bitter orange: [(Ar.)turunj] Citrus fruit mostly found in hot tropical countries. The scientific name Citrus Medica Risso, also known as the Seville Orange. و بعده قاهوه و بعده شربت و بعد ساعه قعود زرنا
17
.
امرأة حكيم البلدية مسيو سليم و ايضاً بكل تمرحيب اخدونا الى موضع الخطار
18
.
و جابوا لنا كذلك جملة اجناس مربات و غير اجناس حلويات و بعده
19
.
القاهوة و بعده جابت لنا ماعونين ملبس و جرز و قسمتهُ لنا و وضعته
20
.
يجيبنا كما هي العاده و حقيقة كثير شفنا اوادم الدير الاعيان فقط
21
.
متمدنين و يستقبلون الزاير بكل ارتحاب و ساعه ١١ فرنكيه خرجنا
22
.
خرجنا من هناك فانا دهبت مع رزوق دنحا لادور في الاسواق
23
.
و غير دلك فرحت الى جميع الدروب و رحت ايضاً الى الصراي Palace: [(Tr.) saray] Ganj Yousif Pasha built this palace during his governorship over Damascus (1807-1810).

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01
.
و تفرجت على جميع القبب و تعجبت كيف الدير هكدا مهندسة و رجعت
02
.
بعد ساعه . و بعد الفطور اتوا يزوروننا جملة نساء الدير و امرأة سعيد افندي
03
.
اخو المطران اغناطيوس و بعض من اقاربها . و لبس بعض نساء الدير هو كثير
04
.
شنيع المنظر لأن يضعون على رؤوسهم مثل طاسه من دهب و وصل بقدر
05
.
الكف من لؤلؤ تهطل على ادانهم و اكثرهم يلبسون ازر بيض و هنا ما يوجد
06
.
غير مقدار ٨٠ / ٧٠ بيت نصاره . و العصر اوادم البلدية و العسكرية رغبوا
07
.
بأن كرنل مكلر يفرجهم على البايسكل الدي جابه معه الى هنا فأمر مستر
08
.
تام دكستر ان يركبه في الطريق فألتمت الخلق بهكدا درجة حتى ما بقي
09
.
مكان لمشي البايسكل و تعجبوا جميعاً و اندهلوا خارق الاندهال على ما
10
.
شافوا و اسمه كان آتي هنا قبل وصولنا بكم يوم و الجميع يصيحون حصان
11
.
الحديد حصان الحديد . و في ساعه ٣ دهبت لعند رزوق و هناك دكتر سليم
12
.
قال لي بين الحكي بأن خوري يعقوب يوجد عنده بالكنيسة ارغن فحقيقة
13
.
فرحت كثير و حبيت اشوفه و ادق لاتدكر ارغني و ايامي في بغداد فخرجنا من
14
.
عند الرزوق ساعه ٥ و دهبنا الدكتور و انا لعند الخوري يعقوب و استقبلنا
15
.
بكل لطافة و هناك لقيت الارغن و دقيت الحان التي اعرفها و داك الوقت
16
.
عنت على بالي بغديد ولما كنت اقعد في قبتنا الكبيره وادق في ارغني فخرجت
17
.
من عند الخوري الغروب و اتيت الى الخييم . و ساعه -,٨ بعد الغروب
18
.
و بعد العشا اتوا عندنا للسهره الدكتور سليم و قرينته و بعد ٣ ساعات
19
.
رجعوا .
20
ايار ٥
صباح مثل البارحة و كذلك الليلة لكن
21
.
هنا الدبان كثير للغاية و جادرنا متروس بألوف ففي ساعه -,٧
22
.
عملنا زياره لبيت سعيد افندي اخو المطران اغناطيوس
23
.
وايضاً عزونا مثل الباقي و بعده رجعنا و انا مع الوالدة دهبنا لنز ور

Page 033


01
.
الخوري يعقوب و ايضاً لنرى كنيسة السريان فبالطريق لقينا توزه جرجوس
02
.
التي اتت معنا عنده و شفنا الكنيسة لطيفة صغيرة لكن ليس
03
.
مزغرفة مثل كنيسة الارمن . فلما رجعنا افتهمنا بأن كرنل مكلر
04
.
معتمد ان يمشي اليوم فهـيَِّـئـْـنـَا اغراضنا للسفر الى الشام و كرينا ٣
05
.
ابعار لنا و للقنصل لحمل الماء لأن درب الشاميه ما به ماء عذب
06
السفر من دير الزور
فأتوا يودعنا جميع الذين عرفناهم هنا و كثير احتصروا على مفارقتنا و ظهروا
07
.
لنا المودة الكافة من صداقتهم و طلبوا لنا بسفر مقرون بالخير
08
.
ففي ساعه ٢ بعد الظهر نزلنا الجادر و عزلنا و شدينا الصناديق
09
.
وبعد ساعه اتوا البغال وحملناها وانا بديت اتخل كاني في هده الدقيقة
10
.
طلعت من بغداد و في ساعه -,٣ تهيأ الكروان للسفر و لفيت
11
.
جفيتي على رأسي و خرجت من البستان أتوادع مع جميع العارفون
12
.
و هنا المتصرف Mutasarrif: (Ar.) Turkish administrative officer in Arab countries. ارفق مع كرنل مكلر ١٢ ضابطيه من العسكر مسلحين
13
.
مثلما لازم .
14
.

15
.


16
.

17
.
فركبت الحصان و الكروان مشي قدامنا مع جميع المسافرون
18
.
كدلك بيت زهير و مدير تدمر فلما وصلت اخير البلد
19
.
و متقبل نجو جول الاقفر al-A'qfir: Probably an old name for the Syrian desert derived from the Arabic word qaf'r, meaning 'wilderness'. We do not know whether this is a description or the name of the desert. It either means "barren" or "barren desert". الذي لا بد مقدار ١٥ / ١٢ يوماً سنكون
20
.
به و بما الآن هو أخر دقيقة موجود على شاطي الفرات العزيز
21
.
و خصوصاً انا الذي مفارقه لبضعة اوقات فحبيت كثير اشرب
22
.
من مائه اخر مرة فجيت على بيت و طلبت منهم ماء فشربت منه
23
.
و درت رأسي على الفرات و قلت له أودعك بالله يا

Page 034


01
.
فرات و اين ستكون الملاقات هل تكون عن قرب لو عن بعد .
02
.
و بما رزوق دنحا مع توني اوساني كانوا مرافقينا توادعت معهم خارج
03
.
البلد و توجهنا مبتعدين قليلاً قليلاَ الى ان غاب نظر الدير
04
المالحة
من الاعين و قصدنا كان بأن اليوم نمشي لمقدار ٣ ساعات الى مكان
05
.
اسمه المالحة al-Malhah: To be completed. فأخيراً وصلناها ساعه ٦ قبل غروب الشمس . فنزلنا الجوادر
06
.
و خيمنا على جول اقفر و بجانبنا على اليمين يوجد ينبوع ماء يجري لكن
07
.
وسخ من ورود الدواب .
08
ايار ٦
اليوم قمنا ساعه ٤ صباح لأن كرنل مكلر البارحة قال بأن لازم
09
.
اليوم نمشي من وقت لكن ليس يوجد افاده من القول لانه يحب ينام وما يقوم
10
.
غير طلوع الشمس اخيراً ساعه -٦ مشينا من المالحه متوجهين
11
.
نحو ارض يابسة قفره ما بها و لا عرق اخضر فبقينا سائرون و ما يوجد
12
.
شي للشوف غير ارض و سماء و صدق من قال لا ارض الا ارض الشاميه
13
قباقب
لأن اذا ولحد يمشي من دون ماء عدب بلا شك يهلك فبالأخير. وصلنا
14
.
ساعه -٢ نقطة القباقب al-Qebaqeb: Musil mentioned that 'Kebakeb' was one of the military stations on the road between Tudmor and al-Rahaba. [Palmyrena, 252] و هي عبارة عن قلعه صغيره مبنية في
15
.
وسط الجول و نجابها بير ماء بعمق ٦ قامات لكن يا له من ماء
16
.
اولاً جميع الدواب مثل الغنيم الاباعر و البغال تشرب منه و ثانياً له طعم
17
.
وسخ و مر و غير قابل الانسان يجرعه فـَـخَـيَّـمْـنَـا قدام القلعه و كثير مشتاقين
18
.
شوفة الفرات و الشرب من مائه العدب . و بعد النزول ردنا نفتح
19
.
قربة من ماء الذي جبناه على الاباعر فشفنا القربة مدبغة جديداً و ماء الذي
20
.
بها قد اخضر و خرب فحقيقة كثير احتصرنا على هده الواقعة و خائفون لئلا
21
.
الماء ما يكفينا . فبما قوناغ Station: [konag (Tr.)] بكره هو كثير بعيد و يمكن على قول البعض
22
.
بعد ١٨ ساعه فلازم نبقي هنا الى غداً الظهر نمشي بالتقسيم . الهواء
23
.
انقلب و اتانا غيم .

Page 035


01
ايار ٧
صباح لطيف لكن مغيم فقمنا من النوم ساعه -٦ و بقينا
02
.
ننتظر وقت المشي فبعد شربان الجاي و بما يوجد عندي
03
.
وقت اغتنمت الفرصة لاكتب كم كتاب الى بغداد الى الاهل و الاصدقاء
04
.
و ارسلهم في اول فرصة . فبقينا اخيراً نصفن الى ساعه ١١ فأكلنا
05
.
الفطور سريعاً و بدينا نشد الحمول و ساعه ١٢ اعني الظهر تكميل شلنا و سقنا
06
.
و لم نزل نسير مقدار ساعتين و الشمس محرقة للغاية لكن بعد غيمت
07
.
مع هواء غربي و الوقت صار سرين و بارد فبعد مشي ٤ ساعات في
08
محيفير
جول اقفر يابس بارض من حصو و لا يوجد فيه الطير لكن التلول
09
.
دائماً على يميننا بعيداً الكروان الذي كان يمشي قدام وقف و قالوا بأن
10
.
من بعد يبان علامات غزو اتيه نحونا للنهب فجميع العسكر و الضابطيه
11
.
و الركاب مقدار ٢٥ واحد التموا و ارسلنا واحد مسلح ليتخبر عن هولأ
12
.
الآتون نحونا و جمعنا جميع الكروان و التختروانات في مكان واحد و مشينا
13
.
فبعد نصف ساعه رجع المرسول و قال يوجد مقدار ٥٠ واحد من البدو Bedouin: Derived from badawi (Ar.), also spelled Bedouin, is a generic name for a desert-dweller, and a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups. The Bedouins constitute only a small part of the total population of the Middle East but inhabit or utilize a large part of the land area throughout most of the desert belt. Most of them are pastoralists who migrate into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back toward the cultivated land in the dry summer months. Following World War I the Bedouin tribes had to submit to the control of the governments of the countries in control of their pasture lands. Many of them became sedentary as a result of political and economic developments, especially after the second World War. Among the Arabic-speaking tribes, the head of the family, as well as of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure, is called sheikh; the sheikh is assisted by an informal tribal council of male elders. منهزمون
14
.
لانهم ظنوا باننا غزو و عدد اكثر منهم و اتون في اثرهم فاتكلنا على الله و سقنا الى
15
.
ان غابت الشمس و ظلم الضلام . ففي ساعه ٧ فتنا محيفير Muhayfir: A military station on the road between Qebaqeb and Riqa. و هو عبارة
16
.
عن بير محفور لكن بلا ماء لأن حكومة العصملي خرجة ٤٠٠ ليرة و ما
17
.
قدرت تلقى الماء و لهدا السبب تركتهُ و في ساعه -٨ نزلنا الحمول
18
.
و الوقت كان اظلم حالك فنصبنا وقتياً جادرنا و بعد الأكل السريع نمنا
19
.
بهدومنا لأن غداً سنقوم من وقت .
20
ايار ٨
غبشة رطبة و بارده قمنا ساعه -،٣ بعد نصف الليل
21
.
لنتحضر للمشي . الليلة كانت منحوسه و الغيم مظلم و نصف الليل مطرة
22
.
لمقدار ساعه و الجول برد و صارت الدنيا رطبة . تهيئنا للمشي
23
.
و في ساعه ٥ سقنا من مكاننا الى الصفنة al-Safnah: Also spelled al-Sahne, another stopping point on the road to Riqa. مكان الماء الدي يشرب

Page 036


01
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فممشانا كان كثير لطيف و بهج و نسيم الربيع لم يزل يفتح القلب فزلنا
02
.
ماشيون بين اجوال مثل التي فتناها البارحة فالدنيا صحت
03
.
و الهواء صار غربي . بما يوجد معنا اباعر لنقل الماء حبيت اركب
04
.
على واحد منهم فحالاً نوخت واحد و ركبتهُ و كدلك تام دكستر و سرنا بين
05
.
الكروان و الجميع يضحكون علينا و ركبت مقدار ساعتين و بعده مسس مكلر
06
صخنة
مع كرنل مكلر و بابا ايضاً ركبوا واحد بعد الآخر و شفت ممشاه لطيف
07
.
لكن لما يقوم زخمه . فزلنا سائرون و انا تارة اركب و تارة امشي
08
.
الى ان صارت ساعه ١٢ الظهر تمام جينا على قرية صغيره المسمات
09
.
صخنة و هي عبارة عن كم بيت من طين تشبه بيوت الكراده al-Kerrada: Part of the city of Baghdad to the South and on the East bank of the Tigris River (also called Karrada Sharqiya, or Eastern Kerrada). During Ottoman rule until the British occupation in 1917, this area was a village made up of farmlands with mud houses and separated from Baghdad province by many expansive orchards with no buildings except a few sarays owned by a handful of wealthy individuals. The farmers and other inhabitants of the village used to draw water from the River Tigris as was necessary to irrigate their farms and plantations, using a primitive hoisting device called kerd, hence the name: al-Kerrada'. و بجانبهم
10
.
سكن لعسكر لمحافظتهم و قبل وصولنا الى هنا فتنا على اليمين جبال
11
.
عاليه و لطيفة المنظر بيضات اللون و كأن الجص يجري من عليها .
12
.
و هنا لقينا بقرب القرية زرع ديم قليل و خييمنا قبال بساتين ثلاث
13
.
بها الصفصاف و الرمان لكن فقيره كثير. و ايضاً شفنا حوالينا جملة
14
.
عيون ماء و منهم كبار و صغار كلها كبريتيه لكن تشرب و هي
15
.
دافية و منها سخنة . الوقت احتر و الشمس قوية .
16
ايار ٩
صباح بارد مع هواء رطب قوي قمنا ساعه ٤ و بدلنا
17
.
هدومنا الليلة كانت مليحه و ليست كثير بارده لكن الهواء كان قوي من
18
.
نصف الليل . كما قال كرنل مكلر بأن اليوم نمشي مع طلوع الشمس لكن اعتاق
19
رِِقَأ
ازود و في ساعه ٦ تكميل تركنا الصخنة و تقبلنا نحو مركز الآخر فسقنا مع الكروان
20
.
و لم زلنا نمشي تارة بين اراضي عدلة و تارة بين اجوال معثرة متروسه
21
.
بالحجار و المشي عليها للغاية صعب و التلول و الاجبال حوالينا و ليس يوجد
22
.
في هدا مشينا شيء للدكر سواء ارض يابسة مثل السابقين
23
.
فهنا اي في ساعه ١٠ تلاقينا مع كم عربي آتين الى الصخنة الوقت احتر و الشمس

Page 037


01
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صارت للغاية محرقة قوية فزلنا سايرين ضايجين من عداب هدا الطريق
02
.
الذي حقيقة يتعب و يعجز و في ساعه -,١ بعد الظهر بانت لنا عن بعد
03
.
نقطة الرقاء Riqa': In 1908, Musil also stopped here, mentioning that it was another military station, under the protection of the Qumsha clan of the 'Sba'a tribe'. [Palmyrena, 84-85] اي منزلنا فشفنا حوالي الارض مقدار ١٠٠ بيت اي بيوت شعر
04
.
من عرب الشمر Shammar: A Bedouin tribe mainly in Saudi Arabia, central, and western Iraq. It is the second largest Bedouin tribe of the Arabian Peninsula. They are part of the Ta'ee tribe, originally from Yemen. For centuries, they lived a sedentary lifestyle until they became camel herders and horse breeders in Northern Najd and expanded north into Iraq during the seventeenth century. By 1908, Musil notes that the station was controlled by the Kumsha clan from the Sba'a tribal confederation. [See above note; Musil, 84-85] مع اباعرهم الدين مثل الدود تنغش في هده الاراضي اليابسة التي
05
.
لا يسكنها غير الغزال لانه لا يعطش هنا و هولأ العرب اتوا هدا الصباح الى
06
.
هنا قاصدين الرحيل لغير اراضي و شيخهم هو فهد بن اضغيم بن هدال Fahad bin Adghaym bin Haddal: Sheikh of the Shammar tribe. To be completed
07
.
الدي مسكنه يبعد عن هنا بمسافة ١٢ ساعه فوق تدمر . فجينا قريبين
08
رِِقَأ
منهم و فتنا بينهم لنلقي لنا مكان للمنزل فلقينا مكان لطيف عالي على
09
.
قمة تل و يشرف على جميع الاراضي التي تحته و بجانبنا نقطة الزابطيه .
10
.
و هنا يوجد ايضاً جملة عيون ماء لكن كثير احسن من عيون الصخنة
11
.
التي مائوها يلعب النفس و يشبه ماء ابيار بيوت بغداد و الذي
12
.
ابد ما قدرت اشربه إلا بالعداب فهنا لقينا الماء انضف و احسن
13
.
و يشرب بازود لياقه لكن ليس كماء الفرات اللطيف الذي على ظني
14
.
ما يوجد مثله في كل اماكن الأرض لأن عدابته لا تنكر ابد و يا حيف على مفارقته .
15
.
و هنا تفرجت على ينبوع الماء الذي يطلع بقدره عجيبه من تحت الصخور في
16
.
مغاره في جوف جبل عالي و هو للغاية صافي لكن به طعم الكاز اي
17
.
الكبريت شيء كثير لطيف للشوف . و ايضاً شفت عند العرب الهودج Howdaj: (Ar.) A camel litter usually used by women on long journeys.
18
.
الدي يركبون به نسائهم و هو عبارة عن اسكمله طويله موضوعه فوق البعير .
19
.
و قبل الغروب بساعه عجبني ادور على العرب و الاماكن فنزلت اولاً
20
.
على حصادين يحصدون شعير فاخر للغاية و ثم رحت شفت عين ماء صافي
21
.
و تجري من بطن الجبل و منضر للغاية لطيف و ثم تفرجنا على العربان
22
.
و هنا يوجد جبل طلعت عليه و من هنا يبان جبل تدمر Palmyra: [(Ar.) Tadmor, Tadmur] An important city in the ancient times, located in the Syrian desert, 145 km/90 miles east of Hims. It was known as the bride of the desert. The name 'Palmyra', an original Greek translation for the Aramaic name Tadmor, means 'palm tree'. From the first until the 12th century C.E., Palmyra flourished as a caravan station and the city grew steadily in importance because of its location on the Silk Road. It is most famous for Queen Zenobia, who was captured, imprisoned, and executed by the Roman Emperor Aurelian in 272 after a brief attempt at independence which threatened to deprive the empire of lucrative trade tariffs. Palmyra became a tourist destination in the 18th century after British travelers included the ruins in a popular travel diary and even more so because of the Iraqi Petroleum Company's oil pipeline that ran through the city between Kirkuk and Tripoli, Lebanon in the 20th century. [Encyclopedia of Islam, "Tadmor"] الدي سنروح
23
.
اليها غداً فرجعت الغروب و الوقت برد و رطب . اعتمدنا بأن
24
.
غداً نقوم صباحاً و نسير نحو تدمر بلد الشهيره .

Page 038


01
ايار ١٠
صباح بارد مع هواء غربي و ليلة رطبة لطيفة قمنا ساعه ٤ و بعده
02
.
ساعه -,٥ نزلنا الخييم و سقنا الى تدمر فزلنا ماشيين اولاً لمقدار
03
.
ساعه بين جبال و تلول و ثم في ارض عدله منبسطة و الجول يابس
04
.
و محجر و في ساعه ٧ بانت لنا عن بعد مديد ولاية التدمر و اول شيء
05
.
تللئلأ لنا هم العواميد الصخرية التي ستجي حكايتها بعده . و ايضاً فتنا
06
.
في الطريق جملة عرب اعنزه Aniza: ['Iniza] Bedouin tribe that lives in northern Saudi Arabia, western Iraq and the Syrian steppe. The Royal families of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Bahrain are traced to this tribe. The Sheikh General lives in Western Iraq. This is one of the largest Arab Bedouin tribes with clans in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. Gulf countries, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey and Egypt. راحلون مع مواشيهم الى الرقاء ليعيدوا
07
.
هناك عيد الضحية The Islamic Feast of Sacrifices: Eid al-Adha (Ar.) falls on the tenth day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah. Eid al-Adha is celebrated by Muslims in commemoration of the Prophet Ibrahim's (Abraham's) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for God. مع شيخهم و يقربون قرابين . فزلنا سائرون
08
تدمر Palmyra
و لا تزال تدمر تبان و لا تلزم حتى الى ساعه -,١١ فرنكيه قبل الظهر وصلنا الى
09
.
هده الاماكن القديمة العجيبة التي تحير العقل فاول شىء شفناه فهو
10
.
العواميد الغريبة العمل فسرنا بينها لنلقى لنا مكان للنزال اخيراً خيمنا
11
.
بجانب طاق كبير و بجانبيهِ طوق اثنان اخر اصغر و على يسار
12
.
مدخل الطاق صف عواميد مقدار ٢٠. فبنايت هده الهياكل
13
.
القديمه على قول البعض ٣٦٠٠ و البعض كثير ازود فمكان الهياكل و غير اشياء
14
.
هو بكبر بغداد و محيطه باليمين بجبال عاليه كثير و اعلا جميع الدين
15
.
شفناهم . فقبال طاق الكبير يوجد عواميد ٤ بطول يمكن ٣٠ ام ٤٠
16
.
دراع من وصله واحده من صخر السماقي العال الدي يحير الغفل و كيف قدروا
17
.
يقصوه و يوقفوه شيء الدي ليس قابل ان يشرحه احد من دون النظر
18
.
فالعصر رحت لأدور و اتفرج على طرف من اطراف الخرائب فأولاً رحت
19
.
على اشياء التي بقرب مننا فجيت على هيكل ليس كبير لكن بنايته تعجب
20
.
الانسان و كل وصلة صخر معمره هي لا اقل كبراً من ٥ ادرع طول و دراعين
21
.
عرض و واحده موضوعه فوق الاخره و في مدخل هدا المكان يوجد عواميد/
22
.
٤ كبار و ملزوق بها روازين طالعت للخارج فعلى رازونه قدرت القي
23
.
كتابة لكن قرايتها تصعب جداً فهي لسان اليوناني اعني مثل

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01
.
هده الاحرف التي نقلتها طبقيا من الحجر ΜΑΛΗΤΟΠΔΕΧΤ
02
.
وبطرف اليمين من الرازونه مكتوب غير جنس كتابه و على قول
03
.
كرنل مكلر بأنها التدموري و كتابتها هكدا.
04
.
فتركنا هدا الموضع و زرنا اخر فجينا على باب كبير طوله بالأقل ٣٠ ام ٤٠
05
.
دراع و عرضه ٢٠ ام ٢٥ و مبني هكدا اعني من ثلاث قطع من مرمر
06
.
فقط و جميعه من التحت الى الفوق مزخرف و منقوش نقش الاقدمين شيء
07
.
لا يفحص الى الانسان الا ّ بالنظر الداتي و حوالي هدا الباب العجيب عواميد
08
تدمر Palmyra
عديده مثل هكدا . و فوق العواميد صخر مبني كل واحده لا اقل من
09
.
طول ٧ ام ١٠ ادرع و من عامود الى الآخر يوجد فقط صخره واحده و روؤس
10
.
العواميد جميعها منقوشه مثل ورود و غير اشياء لكن مع الوقت هدا النقش عمال
11
.
ينحك و يتلف . جملة و جملة حياطين هنا واقعه مهدومه و الصخر متروس
12
.
بالاراضي كدلك جملة عواميد واقعت و مدبوبة لا احد يقدر يشيلها من
13
.
ضخمها فأما العواميد فاكثرهم بطول ٢٥ الى ٣٠ دراع و واقفون من 3 صخرات
14
.
فقط واحده فوق الأخره و الداير العامود هو لا اقل من ٨ / ٧ ادرع و بالكد ٤ رجال
15
.
يحظنوه . فهنا الارض متروسه رمل و صخر كبار و صغار و حياطين مهدمة
16
.
و عواميد مهطله بالارض و قبال خرائب تدمر يوجد على اليمين تل ام جبل كثير
17
.
عالي و على قمته مبني قلعه Castle: Situated on a mountaintop to the West of Palmyra, the Arab fort known as Palmyra Castle (Qalat Tadmor, or Qalat ibn Ma'an) was originally built during the Ayubid era (12-13th century) and then reconstructed and extended by the Lebanese Emir Fakhr Al-Din ibn Ma'ani in the 17th century to prevent Ottoman encroachment. His plans were unsuccessful and he was captured and executed by the Ottomans in 1635. The castle was surrounded by a moat and only accessible by drawbridge. كبيره مخيفه ضاربت الى السماء بعلوها
18
.
و معتمدين غداً نطلع عليها لنرى ما يوجد هناك . معتمدين ايضاً ان نبقى
19
.
هنا مقدار يوم ٣ / ٢ حتى نقدر نشوف كل شيء . فالغروب رجعنا و على
20
.
ما اشوف ما خلصنا من المائة واحد . هنا اشتد الهواء مع ماطرة قوية لحد
21
.
ساعه ١٠ .
22
ايار ١١
صباح بارد و لطيف قمنا ساعه -,٦ و معتمدين بعد شرب
23
.
الجاي ندور على خرائب الباقي الموجوده هنا . فكرنل مكلر ملتبك
24
.
بأخد الفوتوغراف و من مكان الى الاخر لم يزل يأخد صورته .

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01
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و في ساعه –,٧ ركبنا على الدواب لنروح حول هده البنايات القديمة لأن
02
.
بالمشي غير قابل واحد يدور و يتعب عن قليل . فتقبلنا قبل كل شيء هيكل
03
.
اخر صغير لكن ليس لطيف مثل الباقي و حجاراته كثير كبار وضخام و ثم
04
.
سقنا نحو جبل الكبير الدي يوجد على قمته قلعة الكبيره فوصلناه و بدينا نطلع
05
.
عليه قليلاً قليلاً بين صخور صغار و حصو و حجار و ما اشبه دلك الدي
06
.
الانسان يزلق عليه فكنا طالعون من اليمين الى اليسار و بالعكس الى ان
07
.
بعد ١٥ دقيقة وصلنا على رأس الجبل و حقيقة ابد ما طلعت هكدا جبل
08
تدمر Palmyra
عالي و صعب و يكون معلوم على الارجل و ليس على الدواب طلعته فلما وصلنا الى
09
.
اعلاه شفنا القلعة مبنية على قمة الجبل و حواليها مثل خندق عريض و كبير
10
.
و مخيف كثير فدرت حوالي القلعة و ما لقيت ابد درب للدخول اليها و يمكن
11
.
الاقدمين كانوا يضعون جسر من باب القلعة الى الجبل للنزول و الصعود
12
.
و لما يأتوهم العدو يشيلون الجسر و تبقى القلعة محصنة لا احد يقدر يدخل
13
.
فيها و كما كان يبان لها باباب الواحد برأس الدهليز و الأخر بعده بطول
14
.
عشرين دراع و اعلى من الاول و في الخندق يوجد بير الدي غير ممكن
15
.
واحد ينظر به فشيء عجيب للغاية و كيف قدروا يحفروه و يطلعون منه الماء
16
.
من هكدا عمق . فالجبل طوله كان لا أقل من ٤٠٠ متر اعني الى الخندق
17
.
الدي حوالي القلعة فيا للعجب اخر كل صخره كيف قدروا يظعوها على القلعة
18
.
بهكدا علو ( لا اقل من ٢٠٠ متر ) فأما القلعة فجميعها مبنية من صخر كبار لكن
19
.
اقل كبراً من الدين على العواميد . فحقيقة هده القلعة مع البير يحيرون عقل الانسان
20
.
و شي عجيب للغاية و ما احد يصدق به مندون ان يشوفه عياناً . فعلى قول
21
.
شيخ تدمر محمد بن عبد الله Sheikh of Palmyra, Mohammed bin Abdullah. الحالي و الدي عمره لا ازود من ٣٢ سنة بأن هده القلعة
22
.
كانت مبنيت بأمر معنى بن زائده بعد خراب تدمر و حبس زنوبيه Zenobia: To be completed. سلطانة
23
.
هده الاماكن . فبعد التحير الكاف نزلنا من الجبل و تقبلنا نحو غير اشياء

Page 041


01
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فكنا نمشي بين صخور دائماً الى ان تقبلنا نحو قبة كبيره طويله مثل
02
.
Tour فمن بعد كانت تبان كلا شي لكن يا للعجب لما دخلناها من باب
03
.
المشرق و شفنا شي يدهل الانسان من الصناعت العجيبه و بنايت الصخور
04
.
و هده القبة هي بلا شك مقبرة الاقدمين فطولها يمكن ٧٠ / ٦٠ دراع
05
.
و كدلك الى فوق و مقسمة شمالاً و جنوباً بخانات ١٢ مثل مكانات قبور
06
.
او جنايز و لها على اليسار درج دائرها حتى لما تترس الخانات يطعون
07
.
فوق و فوق . فعلى الباب يوجد وصلة مرمر محفور عليها كتابة اليونانية
08
تدمر Palmyra
و التدموريه معاً التي نقلتها عندي بواسطة الدربين Binoculars: (Pr.) Derbin is durbin (with و and ي) which is a Persian compound (dur meaning 'far' and bin meaning 'to see') used in Ottoman Turkish for 'binoculars'. This word is still commonly used in Iraq. من شده علوها .
09
.
فتعمير القبة خارجاً هو ليس شيء يظن بأن في داخلها يوجد هكدا تزخرف
10
.
فقبال الباب داخلاً محفور صور اوادم و تحت كل صوره كتابه غريبة الى اخر
11
.
درجة و سقف هدا المكان هو مصور و منقوش باللون و شي محكم
12
.
و فيها ٤ قوط الواحد تحت الارض و الأخر مع الارض و الثالث اعلا و الرابع
13
.
لموضنين فقط فهده تخمين كيف هي . قدرت اشوف هنا جملة
14
.
اسماء الزائرون و بالتصادف شفت بجانب الباب على اليسار في زاويه مكتوب
15
.
بقلم رصاص خفيف و زحمه للشوف اسم نابوليون بونابارت و هكدا
16
.
مكتوب Napoleon Bonaparte 1792 فهدا التاريخ اي سنة ١٧٩٢
17
.
للغاية عتيق و مستحق التعجب و كيف بكل هده المده اي ١٠٥ سنين لا ساف
18
.
ولا كتابت القلم الرصاص انمحت ايضاً شفت اسماء جملة اناس الدين
19
.
نعرفهم مثل فوست لوريون . كولومان الدي كان في بغداد . جوزف خوري
20
.
التي تنيشن مع جوزفين ابنت العمة مدولة . و غير و غير و انا كذلك
21
.
كتبت اسمي بجملة اماكن و ايضاً قبال الباب داخاً يوجد هده الكتابه
22
.
التي كتبها واحد افرنساوي الدي اتى قبل سنتين ليدرس خرائب تدمر
23
.
و قعد هنا ٤ اشهر و حفر على صخره هده الكتابة بلسان الفرنساوي

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01
.
Ici en 1895 la mission Bretone accompagnée
02
.
de Vizzavir Mourain et Bei. (...)nard . passé le
03
تدمر Palmyra
printemps l'été emmurer à étudier les ruines de
04
.
Palmyre
05
تدمر Palmyra
و ايضاً اسماء (...) Kinloche 1842 و ا J. Rico 2 Juillet 1895
06
.
Inspecteur de la dette publique
07
.
و جملة آخر الدي عجزت عن نقلهم عندي فخرجنا من هدا المكان
08
.
و شفت الساعه صارت -,١٠ فركبت الحصان و سقت الى الخييم لأن
09
.
الوقت صار حر الى الغاية و الشمس محرقه فعلى دربي مريت على عين
10
.
كبريتيه في رأسها يوجد مثل حمام للغسيل و كانوا جملة نساء يستحمون
11
.
بها و مائه حر لكن للغاية صافي و ما يشرب . ماء تدمر ليس
12
.
هكدا مليح و به طعم املوحه و مثل ماء بير . فبعد الظهر الحر اشتد
13
.
مع هواء سموم قوي و كما الارض هي هنا جميعها مرمله الوقت دائماً على
14
.
حروره . و العصر رغبت لاستحم بعين الماء التي لا تبعد عن مكاننا الا ّ
15
.
قليل فأخدت هدومي و دهبت و الماء كان لا كثير حر و مكان
16
.
الغسيل كان دافي و به بوخه . فالغروب الهواء اشتد جداً و بقي
17
.
الى الليل .
18
ايار ١٢
صباح بارد و الهواء طول الليل كان يهب بشده و لم يزل طول
19
.
الوقت و هده الليلة كانت بارده مثل البارحة . اليوم اعتمدنا ان
20
.
نترك تدمر و نكمل سفرتنا الى الشام و سفرنا من هنا سيكون بعد الظهر
21
.
فبما يوجد طرف الآخر من تدمر الدي ما شفناه بعد و هو هياكل الكبار
22
.
و الاضخم حجارته من الباقي . فبعد الجاي اعني ساعه -, ٧ تقبلنا نحو
23
.
المدينة التي بحواليها يوجد هده البنايات فجينا قريب حايط كبير
24
.
طوله لا ازود من ١٠٠ دراع شاهق علواً و اساسه بعرض ٢٠ دراع .

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01
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و كلها مبني من صخر كثير اكبر من الدين شفناهم قبل و بجانب هدا الحائط مبني
02
.
عواميد اخر بطول الحائط و اكبر من الباقي و العرب هنا ما بين الخرائب
03
.
عاملون لهم بيوت من طين يسكنون بها فاخيراً تقبلنا نحو باب كبير
04
.
و هدا يمكن كان باب الولاية فيا له من منظر و كبر الانسان لما يقف تحته
05
.
يبان كانه عصفور فهو مبني هكدا طوله يمكن من الارض الى فوق ٨٠ / ٧٠ دراع
06
تدمر Palmyra
و عرضه من رأس الى الأخر لا اقل من عشرين و جميعه منقوش و مزخرف بنقوش
07
.
تحير العقل و كيف انسان يقدر يحفر هكدا اشيا على وصلة واحده صخر فشي
08
.
الذي حيرني ازود من كل شيء فهو في اعلى الباب اعني من دنكة الى الأخر
09
.
يوجد ممدد صخره واحده يمكن طولها ٣٠ / ٢٥ دراع فكيف قدروا يشيلون و يضعون
10
.
هده الصخره فوق هكدا علو و بناية حياطين هدا المكان كلها من صخر كبار الى
11
.
الغاية و درعت واحدة باقدامي فكانت الطول ٣٥ خطوه و العرض ١١ . ثم دخلنا في
12
.
وسط الهيكل الدي الآن عاملوه جامع للصلاة اعني النصف فقط فشفته شي
13
.
فاخر و مبني كانه كنيسة و به هيكل في الوسط كبير و سقفه من مرمرة واحدة
14
.
فقط منقوشة و محفوره شي لا يفسر و قدرها مربعاً لا اقل من ٣٠ خطوه طول و عرض
15
.
و يمكن هدا المكان كان للصلاة لانه على هدا الكسم فهنا قطعة من
16
.
الهيكل مسقف من صخر و له درج الى الفوق فصعدت عليه و شفت شي
17
.
يحير عقلي و الحجر الدي مسقف منه هدا الهيكل كل واحده لا اقل كبرها من ٢٠ دراع
18
.
طول و ٣ عرض فبقينا نلوج في هده الاماكن و متأسفين على فرقتها في هكدا
19
.
سرعه لأن منظر تدمر و التفرج عليها لا يشبع ابداً . فسرنا راجعين بعد
20
.
التفرج التام الى خيمنا و هنا الاسواق هي بين الخرائب و يوجد هنا مقدار
21
.
١٠٠٠ الف بيت و اهل البلد جميعهم من النساء الدين يعدمون شكل هيئتهم بالدق
22
.
الدي يعملوه دائر صورتهم و صدورهم . يوجد في تدمر مقدار ١٢ / ١٠ بستان و جميع
23
.
حملهم عروق الزيتون الاكثر و الأقل عروق المشمش و التفاح و لكن يوجد

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01
.
فقط مقدار ٣٠ / ٢٠ رأس نخل و جميع الزروعات هنا تسقى من العيون
02
.
الموجوده و من دون هده العيون لا احد كان يسكن في هده الاطراف .
03
ايار ١٣
اخيراً ساعه -,٣ بعد الظهر تهيأنا للمشي فركبنا و تركنا تدمر متقبلين
04
.
نحو الشام فبعد ممشى ٣ ساعات اعني ساعه -,٦ نزلنا لأن كرنل
05
.
مكلر ما عجبه يفوت ازود فالهواء هنا اشتد جداً و الدنيا صارت
06
.
بارده للغاية و هده اول مشيه شفناها هكدا بارده فنصبنا الجادر
07
.
وقتيا لأن غداً صباح نقوم و نكمل قوناغ اليوم . فلما شلنا اليوم
08
.
من تدمر بعد نصف ساعه تلقونا ضابطيه ٤ مرسولين من القريتين al-Qaryatayn: According to Musil, 'al-Zerjitejn', was a large Christian and Muslim settlement protected by the Rwala tribe until 1903. The settlement lay on the western slope of the Kehle mountain and the al-Nusrani ridge, with ample pastureland and agriculture irrigated by the Umm al-Qalajid spring. [Palmyrene, 98-101] التي تبعد
09
.
من هنا ٢٠ ساعه لكي يشوفون اين صار كرنل مكلر لأن قنصل الشام The Consul in Damascus: The diarist meant the British Consul at Damascus.
10
.
ارسل خبر الى مدير القريتين The Governor of al-Qaryatayn: In 1908, this was Ahmad bin Fajjaz Agha. [Palmyrene, 101] ليطلع ضابطيه لاستقبال كرنل مكلر
11
.
و اتوا هودا ليستخبرون عننا . من تدمر الى هنا الجبال الشاهقة لم
12
.
تزل يمين و يسار و هده اعلى من جميع الجبال الدين فتناهم . فالغروب
13
.
البرد اشتد لكن الهواء نوعاً ما وقع و انا نمت بالتخت لأن لا افاده
14
.
من فكان الحمول .
15
.
صباح بارد مثل ما لازم شديد مثل اشد ايام الشتى
16
.
و هواء قوي يهب من الغرب قمنا ساعه -,٥ و شدينا الحمول و شلنا
17
.
من مبيتنا الى نقطة البيضة al-Bayda: A military station on the road between Tadmor and al-Qaryatayn. فزلنا ماشين بين اراضي بلطه عدله و ما بها
18
.
لا صعدات و لا نزلات و البرد لم يزل يقتلنا حتى انا فوق الكوت
19
.
و هدوم الركب اخدت علي العبي التخينه و كنت اموت برداً و اظن الآن
20
البيضة
في بغداد عمال يتعدبون من الحر و نائمون فوق السطوح . فوصلنا الى
21
.
نقطة البيضة ساعه -٨ و نزلنا وقتياً و بدون جادر لكي نفطر و نستريح
22
.
و ثم بعد الظهر نسوق ثانية ً لأن منزلنا بعيد كثير و يمكن لازم نمشي الليل
23
.
جميعه . البيضة هي جول اقفر و ما به غير نقطة اي قلعه للزابطيه و هنا

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01
.
ما يوجد ماء غير بير عميق جداً و مائه لا يشرب الاّ للدواب . فبعد
02
.
الظهر اعني ساعه -١ شدينا تكرار الحمول و هيئنا الكروان للمشي
03
.
الى ان ما نقدر لأن قوناغنا كثير طويل فسقنا و الشمس كانت محرقة
04
.
جداً و الحر قوي و لم زلنا نعبر اراضي يابسة و اجوال مقفره الى ان صارت
05
.
ساعه ٧ اعني الغروب عجبه كرنل مكلر ان ينزل هنا لننام كم ساعه
06
أقْصَير
و ثم نقوم نصف الليل و نكمل القوناغ فنزلنا الكروان و قتيا و نصبنا
07
.
الجوادر لكن بدون حلان الاغراض . هنا الوقت كان نوعاً ما احسن
08
.
من البارحة غروب و البرد ليس كان هكدا شديد لكن الهواء دائما يهب
09
.
و الوقت غييم و القمر يبان ابن ١٤ فاستعجلنا بأكل كل ما يوجد بارداً
10
.
كان او حاراً و ساعه ٩ نمنا . و هدا المكان يسموه الاقصَيْر al-Iqsayr: A small village slightly south of al-Baydhah. .
11
ايار ١٤
قمنا بكير اعني ساعه ١٢ نصف الليل و بعد استعجال
12
.
بكل شيء و ضعنا الحمول على الدواب و سقنا لنكمل دربنا ساعه -١ .
13
.
صباح بارد قوي و يابس مع هواء خفيف غربي و ليلة ربيعية .
14
.
حقيقة كثير عمال نتعب من هدا سفرنا و من البارحة صباح الى الآن
15
.
ما شفنا راحة. و انا كيفي كثير مغير و معي وجع سن الدي كثير مؤاديني
16
قريتين
و البرد اتعسه . فزلنا ماشين ليلاً بين صخور نعام تارة و ثم في
17
.
ارض عدلة يابسة الى ان بانت لنا عن بعد ٣ ساعات بلدة القريتين
18
.
و كانت تختفي و تبان من انخفاضها و ساعه -,٩ وصلناها و دخلناها .
19
.
فاولها يبتدي ببساتين عديده لطيفة مزوعه الاكثر بالعنب و الرمان
20
.
و الخروع و ثم جينا على دروب تشبه دروب البصره و سمعنا بأن
21
.
كرنل مكلر معزوم عند شيخ القريتين لينزل في بيته و اسمه
22
.
فياض اخيراً اقتربنا من بيته و كرنل مكلر راد بأن ننزل معه فدخلنا
23
.
باب بيته . و بان شيء حسين و مبني من الحجار و الجص الابيض
24
.
و لما دخلنا الدهليز قدموا لنا شربت فشربنا و شفت بيته كثير مليح

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01
.
معمر و ما يطن بأن في هكدا بلدة صغيرة يوجد هدا البيت به كراسي اﭭينا Vienna seats: Seats manufactured by the Thonet Brothers Company, established in Vienna-Austria in 1849, for the manufacture of bentwood furniture. They received a patent in 1856 for creating furniture by bending steamed wood. Their designs were considered forerunners of the 'Art Nouveau' movement.
02
.
و تخوت كدلك و جربايات Beds: [charpaye (Pr.)] A form of charpa [char meaning 'four', and pa meaning 'foot'] which means, among other things, "bedstead". مع كلل و صالون عال مع جميع لوازمه
03
.
و اليبت يحوي عن ٦ قبب ملاح فنزلنا في قبة و الظهر حضروا لنا
04
.
فطور و فطرنا مع كرنل مكلر سوية. البلدة هي ليس عاطلة و يوجد
05
.
بها مقدار ١٠٠ بيت نصاره و قسهم السرياني آتي اليوم يزورنا و لكي
06
.
يعزمنا بالنزول عنده هنا كل شيء يلتقى من مأكول و مشروب لكن بما اليوم
07
.
هو كمالة عيد الاسلام فجميع الدكاكين مغلقة . و بعد الفطور اخدت لي
08
.
نومه لمقدار ساعتين و نصف لاني كنت هلكان على الاستراحه . فأنشألله
09
.
بقى لنا القليل و بعد بكره نكون في الشام و نخلص من هده الدوخة الملعونة
10
قريتين
التي شوشت عيشتنا و ما بها ادنى راحه . و سمعنا بعد الظهر بأن كرنل
11
.
مكلر اعتمد ان يأخد غير درب للشام و ليس طريق العمومي و الدي يطول
12
.
ازود بيوم او يومين جميعها حتى يمشي كل يوم قليل فحقيقة كثير اعجزتنا
13
.
هده التقلبات و ما نعرف متى نخلص من هده الدوخه . بيت ازهير اعتمدوا
14
.
ان يسافروا بكره بكير بطريق الدي يروح رأساً للشام و من دون شك يصلوا
15
.
بعد بكره . العصر عجبنا ان نزور قس السريان الخوري ابراهيم فلقينا هنا
16
.
بالدار ابنه لان مزوج و عنده ٣ اولاد و هنا جميع اهل البلدة يلبسون عكل
17
.
و جفافي حتى النصاره و ابن القس ايضاً كانه مسلم . فرحنا معه لمحلهم و مشينا
18
.
بالدروب التي تشبه عقود الجاموس في بغداد و اخيراً جينا على بيت القس الدي
19
.
هو مثل طوله و به قبه مثل ديوان و مفروش به مقاعد مع كم مخده و بالحايط معلق
20
.
وراور و Pistols: [warawer (Ar.)] In the Arabic diary, plural of warwar, a colloquial word that means 'a revolver'. اسلاح و غير اشياء التي تضحك كثير و القس هو كثير مسكين و شايب.
21
.
و كانه عربي جميع يداه مدقوقه اخيراً لما قمنا طلبنا منه ان يروينا كنيسته فاخدنا
22
.
و مشي بنا من دار الى دار الى ان جاء على باب كانه باب حوش عتيق
23
.
و فتح لنا باب الكنيسه فدخلنا بها و هي تشبه مدرسة الكلدان التي في
24
.
بغداد و بكبرها و بها صور مقدار ٧ / ٦ و بعض منهم ممزقين و طرونر كله اعوج

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01
.
و به ٤ شماع و يا للعجب في جميع الكنيسة ما يوجد لا حصير و لا كرسي لا شي
02
.
للقعد فعند السؤال قال لنا القس بأن الدي يريد يسمع القداس يقف
03
.
و منهم يقعودون لكن الحق بيده على هدا الفقر الاسود لأن البلد ما تسوى
04
.
النظر ممكن بساتينها لطيفه و هنا لقيت كثير شجر الكرم جميع اراضي
05
.
البساتين متروسه منه و ايضاً يوجد شجر القوغ فبعد ما جلنا في الدروب
06
.
التي يرثي لها الحال رجعنا الى البيت الذي هو الاحسن الموجود هنا . قريتين
07
.
هي صغيره و بها مقدار ٢٠٠٠ نفس . فاليوم الغروب درسي للغاية ألمني
08
.
و هلكت منه .
09
ايار ١٥
صباح ربيعي و ليس كثير بارد و هده اول ليلة من بغداد
10
.
الى هنا نمنا في اوضة مبنية من حجار لأننا دائماً كنا نبات في الخييم
11
.
قمنا ساعه ٥ و بقينا ننتظر امر الكرنل للمشي فاخيراً ساعه -,٦ شدينا
12
.
الحمول و تركنا منزل الشيخ فياض و خرجنا من القرية متقبلين نحو
13
.
الشمال و بيت ازهير اخدوا درب العادل و دهبوا الى الشام فزلنا نحن
14
.
ماشين بين جبال و تلول و عواير و حجارات و تلاقينا هنا كثرة
15
مهين
من عرب الاعنزه اي البدو راحلين من مكان الى اخر يلقون لهم
16
.
مرعى و هم مثل الدود في هده الاماكن . شيخ فياض ايضاً
17
.
ركب معنا ليوصلنا الى الشام و البارحة كتب كتاب الى حكومة عن الشام The Government of Damascus: The Ottoman authorities in Damascus
18
.
مجي و مشي كرنل مكلر و نحن ايضاً اغتمنا الفرصة و ارسلنا كتاب مع الساعي
19
.
الى مطران باسيل صديقنا العزيز ليلقى لنا ادا امكن بيت بجانبه لكي
20
.
ننزل به احسن من نروح الى هوتيل . فسرنا ماشين في درب
21
.
ليس لطيف و الجبال على يسارنا عمال تعلى كثير و حتى شفنا قدامنا عن
22
.
بعد جبل عالي و عليه الثلج و هدا سلسلة من جبال اللبنان . فوصلنا
23
.
ساعه -١٠ الى مهين Maheen: According to Musil, the village 'Mhin' was to the northwest of al-Qaryatayn on the road to al-Qastal. قرية صغيره جداً و هنا لقينا في اخر القرية
24
.
كرنل مكلر مع اتباعه معتمد ان يأكل الفطور و ثم يمشي فنحن بقينا

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01
.
ماشيين و ما نعرف اين نروح فاخدنا طريق الدي يودينا الى حجره Hajra: A small village between Maheen and al-Qastal. ايضاً
02
.
قرية صغيرة مثل مهين لكن بعد نصف ساعه لحقنا الضابطيه من عند
03
.
الدين معنا و قال لازم نأخد درب الشمال لنروح الى قرية حفير Hafayyir: A small village between Maheen and al-Qastal. و ثم
04
حفير
الى حجره فرجعنا تكراراً و ضيعنا هنا نصف ساعه اخيراً بقينا نمشي الى ساعه
05
.
١٠× ٢ وصلنا قرية الحفير و فتنا هنا جملة بساتين مثل الدين في قريتين
06
.
و جميعهم متروسين بالكرم ازود من كل شيء فخيمنا على نهر صغير يجري
07
.
من عين ماء بعيد و موجودين محتاطين بالجبال العاليه فالعصر
08
.
حبيت اروح اتفرج على الدروب و على الكنيسة لأن اهل هده القرية جميعهم
09
.
نصاره يعاقبه Jacobite Christians: In the 19th Century the Syrian Orthodox Church was quite marginal in the midst of a Muslim majority. However, they had strong ties to European philosophies and institutions. European ideas were translated by the Jacobites, putting even more pressure on the already decaying Ottoman Institutions. و القليل سريان و ما يوجد و لا مسلم ام يهودي فيوجد عليهم
10
.
قسيس اسمه القس سلمان و الحفير يوجد بها مقدار ١٠٠٠ نفس فقط .
11
.
فعقودها مثل القريتين لكن لبس نسائهم غير شيء و من تدمر الى هنا
12
.
اللبس تبدل بالكلي و عمال يلبسون تقريباً مثل التلكيف Telkeyif: A village in Nineveh province (capital Mossul) of northern Iraq, it is surrounded by farming lands where residents grow wheat and vegetables and maintain livestock. Several Telkeipian families have emigrated to the United States. They are also well known for their traditional dress. و الرجال جميعهم بعكل .
13
ايار ١٦
صباح بارد مع هواء قوي و بالليل اتتنا ضربة
14
.
قوية من هواء غربي حتى ان جادرنا نشلعت انباتاته و كان يسقط علينا
15
.
و طول دلك مقدار ساعتين و هدا صدر لأننا موجودين في بين الجبال
16
.
و الهواء ما له مفر فأخيراً قمنا ساعه ٥ و تحضرنا للمشي الى قوناغ الأخر فبعد
17
دير سطام
ان شدينا الحمول سقنا ساعه ٦ متقبلين نحو الغرد ب فسرنا
18
.
بين تلول و اراضي متروس بها الحصو و الحجار و العوارات و بعد
19
.
ساعه و نصف فتنا قرية صغيره كثير مهجوره ما بها طير و هده هي حجره و السكان
20
.
هربوا خوفاً من العرب و كانوا ساكنين بها لا ازود من ٤٠٠ /٣٠٠ نفس . فزلنا
21
.
ماشيين الى ساعه -٩ جينا على قرية × اكبر من حفير و بها بساتين عديده
22
.
مزروعه بالجوز و اللوز و الكرم ففت انا من اولها الى اخرها راكباً و حقيقة
23
.
كثير عجبني منظرها لأن العيون الماء
24
.
× اسمها دير سطام الصافي مثل الزلال "As clear as albumen": A local expression. و الحلو مثل السكر

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01
في النبك ٤٠٠٠ نفس
يفوت بالعقود و الخشب القوغد في النبك ٤٠٠٠ نفس مخظر و معطي فـَـيْ لطيف فبعد نصف ساعه
02
.
Dayr Setaam: A village just north of Nabk, which Musil recorded as Dayr 'Attiyye in 1912. [Palmyrene, 223] خرجنا منها و هنا ايضاً جميع سكانها نصاره سريان و يعاقبه فمن هنا تبان
03
.
لنا بلدة النبك al-Nabk: [Nebk] A large village on the road to Damascus. Nabk was on the nothern edge of the She'eb al-Loz mountain range and was reportedly surrounded by orchards and a large spring. [Palmyrena, 223] الدين نحن قاصديها اليوم و بساتينها تمدد الى بعد ساعه فبقينا
04
.
ماسكين السكة و في ساعه -,١٢ وصلنا على بساتين النبك و حقيقة منظرها
05
.
لطيف من بعد و كانها تعمير اورپا فبعدنا عنها بمقدار ١٥ دقيقة و خيمنا على نهر ماء
06
.
الدي يجي من عين و طعم الماء هنا غاية ً عدب و احسن من شط بغداد. بغداد .
07
.
و هنا في النبك ربع السكان نصاره سريان و يعاقبه و يوجد ايضاً
08
.
قسيسين سريان الواحد اخو قس ابراهيم الدي في القريتين و اسمه
09
.
خوري بطرس و هو رجل طويل و وجهه عبس و الأخر اسمه القس حنا
10
.
و فريده النقاشه التي في بغداد تصير خالته لكن يا له من قس يموت
11
.
من الضحك كانه تلكيفي و فقير جداً و اتوا يزوروننا بعد العصر.
12
.
و ايضاً يوجد قسيس انكليزي برتيستانت اسمه مستر ستيورت
13
.
Irichman Mr. Stewart و صار له سنتين و فاتح
14
.
له مدرسه يعلم الانكليزي. و من هنا يوجد محل تلكراف
15
.
للحلب و بغداد و غير اماكن و هنا شفنا الدرب معدل بالوسط
16
.
لمشي العربات التي تجي من الشام و تروح الى حلب و بغداد و رأينا
17
نبك
٣/٤ الدين رأحون و جايين. و قبالنا هنا يوجد جبال للغاية عالية دائرنا
18
.
فالغروب اتانا هواء قوي مع تراب الدي عدبنا . و الوقت صار بارد .
19
ايار ١٧
صباح بارد الى الغاية و ابرد من جميع صباحات الفاتت
20
.
و الليلة كانت قاسية جداً قمنا ساعه ٥ و تهيئنا للمشي فسقنا ساعه
21
.
الى اخر منزل من هده سفرتنا و بكره بعد الظهر انشأالله نصل ٦
22
.
الى الشام و نخلص من الدرب و المشي في الاجوال فزلنا ماشيين
23
.
بين جبال لكن على درب العربة التي معموله مخصصاً الى تسهيل الدرب
24
.
و في ساعه -٨ فتنا على اليسار قرية صغيره بها مقدار٦٠٠ / ٥٠٠ نفس

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01
.
اسمها القصطل al-Qastal: A village one day's march south of al-Nabk and on the western edge of al-Qabbaas, part of the She'eb al-Loz mountain range. [Palmyrena, 224] و بها كم شجره فهنا الجبال عمال كثير تعلى و تكثر و البر
02
.
متغير عن بر العراق جداً اخيراً بعد المشي الدي عجزنا جداً وصلنا
03
.
قرية قطيف Qutayyif: A village south of al-Qastal on the road to Damascus. ساعه =,١ بعد الظهر و من بُـعُـد ساعه تلقونا مقدار ١٢
04
.
ضابطيه مرسولين من والي الشام Wali of Damascus: Wali Husayn Nadhoom was the governor (wali) of Damascus in 1897. لاستقبال كرنل مكلر فقربنا من البلدة
05
.
و دخلنا في خان عتيق بقرب ٣٠٠ سنة لكن قوي و نصبنا الخييم في
06
قطيفى
الحوش و هنا بجانبنا يوجد حمام معدنية و معتمد اروح استحم بها بعد
07
.
العصر . فحبيت اروح ادور في البساتين فأخدت واحد من اهل الخان و رحت اجول
08
.
في البساتين و هي كثير لطيفه مزروع فيها من جميع اجناس الميوه من عنجاص تين
09
.
مشمش كرم خوخ لوز جوز لكن يوجد عرق واحد فقط زيتون فرجعت الغروب .
10
الشام
لما سألنا ثانية ً عن الحمام التي بجانبنا قالوا بانها ليست شيء بل ماء عادي يحمى فالأجل
11
.
ذلك ما رحت لاسبح بها.
12
ايار ١٨
صباح لطيف و ما به برد قط و الوقت ايضاً ليس بارد و مثل
13
.
البارحة قمنا ساعه -,٥ و تهيئنا للمشي الى اخر منزلنا و هو الشام و يا لله الحمد قد خلصنا
14
.
من صعوبة الطريق ففي ساعه ٦ مشي الكروان و نحن كدلك و زلنا مارين بطريق
15
.
العربات الى ان دخلنا في وادي كبير طوله مقدار مشي ساعتين و يسموه بوغاز Boughaaz: Boughaz is a Turkish word meaning 'straights' or 'throat' and most likely was the name of a valley.
16
.
و عند خروج هدا البوغاز بانت لنا الشام عن بعد مع باساتينها العديده و يا له من
17
.
منظر لطيف فبقينا نمشي و لم تزل الشام تبان اقرب و اقرب و في ساعه -,٩ دخلنا
18
.
باول بساتينها و هده تبعد عن البلد بمسافة ٤ ساعات
19
.

20
.
وهدا المكان يسموه القصير al-Qusayr: A village with ample pastureland and an inn (khan) north of Damascus. و لهو منظر جميل لانه مثل مدربان و على الصوبين
21
.
اشجار مخضرة من القوغ و لكن الازود زيتون اشجار كبار و تغطي من الشمس
22
.
و هنا يوجد جملة ضيع و العشب ناصح للغاية و احسن من جميع الدين
23
.
شفناه قبل فزلنا سايرين مقدار ساعتين و جينا على مدربان

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01
.
يسموه دومه Duma: [Dooma, Dumar] A large town on the outskirts of Damascus noted for extensive orchards. و لم تزل هنا اوادم البلد من الفلاليح و الشواغيل تنغش في هدا
02
.
المكان و العربيات كدلك تروح و تجي كل كم دقيقة و حقيقة اني للغاية حبيت
03
.
دخلت الشام لانها كثير مفرحة و تفتح الخاطر اخيراً بقينا سائرون الى ان صارت
04
.
ساعه -,١ بعد الظهر شفنا اول بنيان الشام و هو خستخانه للعسكر لكن يا لها من
05
.
مكان مفرح و شن و بناية القشله Kishla: A Turkish word meaning 'military barracks' in Syria and 'hospital' in Egypt. على ترتيب اورپا و اول مره شفت هكدا
06
.
ترتيب و صنعه فوصلنا باب الولاية و تسمى باب توما Tooma: One of eight extant gates to the old city of Damascus, Thomas' Gate (Bab Tooma, or Bab Touma) is on the north-east corner of the old of the city of Damascus. و جينا على جنينه
07
.
تسمى دار الدرب هنا يأتون اودم الشام مع نسائهم و بناتهم و غير دلك للانشراح و ايضاً
08
الشام Damas
للشرب و الأكل و حقيقة كثير عجبني البستان و قالوا بأن كرنل مكلر معتمد
09
.
يخييم هنا فنزلنا و دخلنا الى البستان لنستريح و ثم لنأخد عربية و ندخل
10
.
ندور لنا مطرح و رسلنا من هنا خبر الى مطران باسيل عن قدومنا فبقينا ننتظر
11
.
في البستان التي مملوئه من الورود و خصوصاً من الورد الجنبد من جميع الاجناس
12
.
و كبار و ناصح و يوجد بالجنينة كثير تخوت للاستراح فأخدنا تخت و بقينا ننتظر
13
.
قدوم كرواننا فللحال اتانا مرسول من سيادت المطران باسيل و هو القس سلمان
14
.
تبوني مع قواز المطران و عربية بكلفنا للمجي عنده فركبا بالعربة و ساقت
15
.
بنا بين دروب الشام و عقودها فحقيقة اني تعجبت على تعمير البلد
16
.
و هندستها فوصلنا بعد ١٥ دقيقة باب البطرالخانة و دخلنا بيت كبير رحب
17
.
به الشدروانات و عمارات من المرمر فتلقانا المطران باسيل
18
.
الدي صار ٧ سنين ما شفناه فحقيقة كثير فرح بملاقاتنا و دخلنا
19
.
عنده بالديوان و كان يبان قلبه ملي سروراً فقبل كل شي طلبنا منه انكان
20
.
يعرف لنا بيت للنزول به فقال شي ما يمكن و انتم معزومين عندي و الغراض
21
.
ستجي الى هنا فكثير لجينا به فما قبل اخيراً اختصبنا لنبقي هنا فاطلعنا
22
.
الى فوق و روانا قبه محضره لنا و الى داك الوقت ما كان متغدي فنزلنا
23
.
و تريقنا معه و هو كثير عزنا و كرمنا و ثم قال يوجد عنده جملة مكاتيب لنا من
24
.
بغداد فحقيقة كثير فرحنا على دلك و كنا مشتاقين لنأخد اخبار بغداد

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01
.
و ايضاً اعطانا تيل اتى من قبل ٩ ايام من الاهل يطمنونا عن صحتهم ففتحنا
02
.
مكاتيب بغداد و بالدموع بالاعيون قريناهم و قد وصلهم مكاتيبنا من الفلوجه
03
.
و رمادي و ايضاً تلغراف رمادي فما بينوه نحونا من الم الفرقه كثير. شرح قلبي
04
.
و ايضاً اخدت مكاتيب من لويزهارتين جميل عبد الكريم انطون جوليتي و غيرهم و حقيقة
05
.
للغاية انسريت باستماعي اخبار بغداد فحالاً رتبنا تيل الى بغداد و قلنا " وصلنا ثلاثا
06
.
ظهر بغاية الصحة اشواقنا نزلنا عند السيد باسيل " و رسلناه حالا ً الى التلكرافخانه لأن
07
.
لا بد فكرهم باقي عندنا كثير و سيفرحوا بالتيل . و بعده نزلنا الى الكنيسه السريان الملتصقه
08
.
بهده البطركياخه و شفناها شيء فاخر كثير لطيفه مزوقه بالصور العال و مبنيه كثير بزغرفر
09
.
و سمعنا هناك شهر المريمي جملة اناس شوام كانوا هناك من نساء و رجال و جميعهم
10
.
كانوا يديروا بالهم علينا نحن الغرباء فالغروب رجعنا الى مكاننا من باب الذي يدخل
11
.
الى البيت و قبتنا هنا هي لطيفه جداً و قدامها تبان كنيسة الروم Roman Church: To be completed. مع الدوم و الجرس
12
.
و على ما يقولوا هي شيء لطيف و لا بد ما نشوفها فساعه ٨ تعشينا و ثم نمنا مرتاحين
13
.
من مشقة الطريق .
14
ايار ١٩
قمت صباح اعني ساعه ٦ و لله الحمد ليس مستعدين لنمشي
15
.
في الكروان و لكن مستريحين للغاية فبعد التبديل ارسلت على حلاق ليقص شعر
16
.
رأسي فأتى و قصه و ثم لبست هدومي المسمات عندي رسمية و كتبت كارت
17
.
بوستال الى انطوان هوبرت صديقي العزيز في البيروت اخبره عن وصولي الى هنا
18
.
و مشتاق اشوفه و دلك سيكون الاثنين ام البعده و ارسلته مع قواز البطركخانه الى
19
.
البوسطه ليروح اليوم بعد الغروب مع سكة الحديد الموجوده هنا التي
20
.
تروح دائماً الى بيروت مرتين في كل ٢٤ ساعه و تأخد ٩ / ٨ ساعات الى بيروت
21
.
و دلك كثير تقيل لكن الدروب ما هي تامه بعد للمشي الخفيف . و بعده اعني
22
.
ساعه -,٩ اخدت واحد من هنا تصادقت معه و رحت لادور في شوارع و مغازات
23
.
الشام فاخدت عربية و سقت نحو شارع يسموه الحميدية al-Hamidiyya: Famous market in Syria that still bears the same name. مبني على ترتيب اورپا
24
.
و به مغازات فاخره و ثم رحت لعند فوتوكرافجيه لاشوف ادا عندهم

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01
.
تصاوير تدمر و الشام فشفت عندهم من كل جنس و انهم مستعدين لهكدا شي جداً اخيراً
02
.
اشتريت لي باصتون و رجعت ساعه ١١ الى مكاننا و بعد الفطور اعني ساعه ١
03
.
رحنا لنزور كنيسة الروم الكاثوليك و مطران باسيل امر قوازه ان يرافقنا
04
.
دائماً لما نطلع للدرب ففتحوا لنا باب الكنيسة و شفتها شيء للغاية
05
.
فاخره على ما بها من زغرفات المرمر المحفور السماقي و تعجبت على هكدا كنيسة
06
.
لطيفه و بها فوق طارمه عريضه بعرض ١٠ ادرع دائر الكنيسة . و بابها
07
.
كله من برنج فجيت ادرعها فطلعت ٨٠ خطوه طول و ٤٤ عرض اخيراً طلعنا
08
.
و استأجرنا عربية لندور بها فسقنا على دائر الشام و مرينا على هوتيلات
09
.
و جنينات و يوجد هنا تقريب اخر البلد الهوتيل الاحسن و اسمه
10
.
Hotel Basraoni Hotel Basraoni: To be completed. شيء فاخر و منظره كثير لطيف اخيراً رحنا
11
.
الى الـ Station de chemin de fer و كان وقت وصوله من بيروت
12
.
فانتظرنا في المحطة لوصوله للنظره فساعه ٤ بين لنا و جاء و هده اول
13
.
مره من عمري نظرته و رأيته شي كثير حلو و ثم رجعنا الى سوق الحاميدية
14
.
و ثم رحنا الى بيت في حارة اليهود يسموه بيت شمعايه Shama’aya's house: The historian Naoman al-Qasatli speaks of the Jews' palaces that were built between 1865 and 1872 in Damascus of which the house of Shamaya among many other houses saying that not less than 20 thousands liras were expended for each لأن به صالون
15
.
فاخر فدخلنا به و عطينا اجرة ٣ ارباع مجيدي ففتحوا لنا الصالون
16
.
و تفرجنا عليه و شفناه شيء افخر ما يوجد و يفوق بناية كنيسة الروم
17
.
و جميعه مطرز من مرمر السماقي و له سقف الذي يستحق الانسان ان
18
.
يندهل به و صاحب هدا المحل شمعايه خرج فقط على هده الاوضهْ ١٠٠٠٠ ليره
19
.
عشرة الاف و اني اقول تسوى كثير ازود من ذلك فخرجنا من البيت
20
.
و نحن متعجبين على بنايته الفاخره و رجعنا الى مكاننا. البارحة العصر زارنا
21
.
دكتر مجيد حكيم العسكريه الدي نعرفه كثير طيب و فرح بملاقاتنا و اليوم
22
.
شفت بالسوق علي الكردي البغدادي و قد اتى الى هنا قبل ٧ أشهر .
23
.
الوقت معتم و الغيم قوي و نخاف من مطر . ساعه ٦ قريب الغروب
24
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رحنا مع الخواجاميخائيل قرواني و امدامته و ابنته و دهبنا خارج البلد و مرينا

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01
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على جنينات تفتح القلب و كدلك دخلنا في جنينة الالطف الموجوده هنا و اسمها
02
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الصفنيه al-Safanya: No reference is found. لكن يا لطيف على هده البستان نرى بها النساء مع الاوادم تنغش
03
.
و الجميع قاعدون تحت الاشجار و نهرين يفوتون يسار و يمين و هنا النساء
04
.
يقعدون الى ساعه ١١/١٠ من الليل حقيقة الى الغاية حبيت هده البستان لانها
05
.
تشرح الخاطر و هنا في الشام الحريه كثيره و يا حسافه على عيشة بغداد و على عدم
06
.
الحرية التي بها اخيراً بعد مشي ساعه رجعنا . و بعد الغروب عملنا لنا سهره لعند
07
.
الخواجه ميخائيل قرواني و استقبلونا بكل لطف و هو رجل لطيف و امرائته كدلك
08
.
و جميع اهل دارهم و ساعه ١١ رجعنا و نمنا .
09
ايار ٢٠
صباح مغيم و ممطر بعد سمعان القداس اتوا عندنا بيت
10
.
الخواجه ميخائيل قرواني ليصحبونا لنعمل لنا دورة اخره في البلد فاخدنا عربية
11
.
و سقنا بين الاسواق و الحارة و طلعنا على محلة يسموها الميدان و بأخرها
12
.
يوجد محطة اخره لسكة الحديد الموجوده هنا فهده تستحق الشوف و مننرمه
13
.
مثل اورپا و دخلنا كرخانة التي يعملون بها لوازم الشمين دفير و تعجبنا على هده الاشغال
14
.
فرجعنا بعد دلك الى سوق الحميدية لنشتري لنا كم شيء فدخلنا في مغازه يسموها
15
.
Christopher و حقيقة تستحق التعجب و بها جميع ما يطلبه الانسان فاشتريت
16
.
لي جوز كندره اصفر و ثوب و شبقه حصير في ٥ مجيديات و هنا نزلنا من العربه
17
.
و بقينا نمشي لنتفرج على المغازات احسن فدرنا من مكان الى اخر و لم
18
.
نزل ننبهت و هنا شفت في مغازة ماسيو الدي مأخد ابنت باو و هو
19
.
عرفني و سألني كثير على بغداد و ايضاً شفنا عبدالله الزالقه الدي يعرفنا كثير طيب
20
.
و يعرف حبيب الغانونجي Habib al-Ghanounji: No reference is available. و كان في البصره و قال نيته يروح الى بغداد بعد
21
.
٣٠ يوم و كان يسألني على بغداد و البصره . فتنا جمله اسواق من الجواهرجيه الى
22
.
الخياطين الأنه في سوق الخياطين فتنا على حمام يسموها الأشاني al-Ashani: No reference is available. التي تسوه
23
.
ان تشاف و لها شراحية لا تصف و جميع الارض من الرخام و كدلك

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01
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الحيطان و السقوف . فبعد ان تعبنا من المشي رجعنا الى مطرحنا و هنا اتانا
02
.
قبل الفطور مسيو ايليا ترجمان قنصل النمسا و رجع لنا اوراقنا و الباسابورت
03
.
لأن البارح الوالد زار القنصل واسمه Monsieur Rontopoulo و هو
04
.
اخو مدام كويدان صديقنا في بغداد مأمور الكرنتينه . فبعد الظهر اتتنا
05
.
مدام الخواجا ميخائيل و اخدتنا انا مع الوالدة لبيت اخي قرينها فقعدنا هناك
06
.
و ثم رحنا جميعاً للتفرج على بيت زريف جداً و يسموه بيت الست روزه الشاميه House of Lady Rosa the Damascene: (bayt Al-Sit Rosa Al-Shamiyah)in the Arabic text, no reference is available.
07
.
فوصلنا على الباب و دقينا الجرص ففتح لنا الباب و دخلنا في بيت صغير و منه الى
08
.
الأخر و شفناه شي يطير العقل على ما به من الزغرفه و شغل الـ Mosaïque
09
.
و السقوف جميعها تعجب و تحير الانسان و هدا البيت يقولوا كلف مقدار ٢٠٠٠٠
10
.
ليره فبعده خرجنا و رحنا نزور كنيسة العازاريين Lazarists: A nickname given to the members of the congregation of the Mission that was established in 1625 by Saint Vincent de Paul because they lived at the priory of Saint-Lazare. فشفناها كنيسة
11
.
كثير لطيفه بها مرمر السماقي و الشغل الرفيع الدي لا يكتب فبعده طلعنا
12
.
و رجعنا للبيت فالغروب القنصل النمساوي رجع لنا الفيزيته . و بعد
13
.
العشاء سهرنا في بيت من اعيان الشام و يسموه بيت ابي احمد و هناك كانو
14
.
ستات افرنجيات European: In the Arabic text, the word 'Franjiyat' (feminine, plural), has for meaning, the Franks or Europeans. From the Latin ' Francus'. (و صبليا) و صبايا مقدار ٢٠ نفس لكن بعض منهم كانوا يهود
15
.
و هنا الدنيا مطرت لمقدار ٥ / ٤ ساعات حتى اختصبنا نرجع بالمطر و لم يزل الوقت
16
.
من يوم وصولنا الى الآن مخربط و معتم .
17
ايار ٢١
قمت ساعه ٧ لأن كنت سهران من ليلة البارحة صباح
18
.
وخم و الغيم لم يزل معتم فبعد ان بذلت هدومي رحنا مع سيادت المطران
19
.
لنزور بعض ابيوت فرحنا لبيت الخوري بطرس Parson Boutros: No reference is available. قسيس البطركخانه و كدلك
20
.
رحنا بعده لبيت اخي الخواجا ميخائيل وبعده دخلنا في مكان يعملون شغل
21
.
الصدف على الكراسي و غير اشيا شي لطيف للغاية و يوجد بنات يشتغلون
22
.
و بعده رحنا لبيت الدكتور مجيد لكن ما لقيناه فوضعنا الكارت
23
.
فخرجنا من هنا و رحنا الى بيت يقولون به موضع و هي الآن كنيسة

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01
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مكان القديس حنانية Saint Ananias: Ananias: (Saint) a Christian disciple who lived in Damascus at the time of Saul of Tarsus. The Saint was born and lived in Damascus among an existing community of Jews in the city that was mainly occupied by an Arab merchant people at the time, called 'Nabateans'. A community of Christian disciples had thus grown up in the city and Saint Ananias was, as known, born in Damascus, where he also lived and was evangelized. He received a vision of Jesus in which he was ordered to find a man from Tarsus named Saul who persecuted the Christians, and cure him of his blindness, at the house of Judas, situated in a street called 'Straight' and this is where, in the cellar of this house, he laid his hands on Saul and thus restored his eyesight,and he also baptized the man who was later known Apostle Paul. The cellar at the house of Judas is the place where Saint Paul hid and worshipped. It is located at the Christian Quarter, at the end of Bab Sharqi Street, and is made now as a chapel. Apostle Ananias was one of 70 disciples sent by Christ to spread his Gospel. And it was Apostle Ananias who later saved Saint Paul and helped him flee from Damascus where his life was threatened, by putting him in a basket that was lowered over the city wall. But the refusal of Apostle Ananias to offer sacrifices to idols would later result in his martyrdom. (Memorial Day: 25 January). Wikipedia. الدي لما صار بولص تألم في عينه سيدنا المسيح رسله الى القديس
02
.
حنانيه ليشافيه فالقديس بولص دخل عنده و تشافا فدخلنا البيت و بعده الى
03
.
جنس سرداب الدي الآن هو مثل كنيسة صغيره و شفنا مكان قديس
04
.
حنانية و بعده خرجنا و رحنا الى دير اللاتين Monastery of the Latins: The Latin church is the church of the West. و دخلنا في كنيستهم و حقيقة
05
.
شفت هده الكنيسة الطف من الجميع فيها العواميد كبار و مهندسة على ترتيب
06
.
كنائس اورپا و لها Orgue في الطارمه بكبر اوضه متوسطه و يقولوا
07
.
كلف ١٠٠٠ ليره لكن شي فاخر فبعده زرنا رئيس الباترية Friar: The word 'Padrieh' is written in the Arabic text, a colloquial form for the French word'peres'or Italian word 'padre' و جميعهم هنا
08
.
هم الكابوسيين Capuchins: A religious man or woman forming part of the order of Saint-Fran?ois. و يوجد عندهم مدرسة فبالكنيسة شفت مرمره في
09
.
الحائط مكتوب عليها هدا طريح بقيت عظام الباتري توما Father Toma: In the Arabic text, the phrase 'Padre Toma' is used and 'padre' is transcribed into Arabic. No reference is available. الذي قتلوه
10
.
اليهود في دمشق و انا كنت قاري عليه كثير و ايضاً يوجد مع عظام الباتري
11
.
عظام الولد الدي قتلوه في وقت واحد لأخد دمهم للفطير واسمه عبد النور Abd al-Noor: No reference is available.
12
.
في ١٨٤٠ . و بعد هده الدوره جينا لنشوف بيت آخر وصفوا لنا
13
.
عليه بأنه اجمل بيوت الشام فرحنا اليه مع الخواجا ميخائيل قرواني و يسموا
14
.
هدا البيت بيت الخواجا ميخائيل صباغ فحقيقة لما دخلنا اندهلنا على
15
.
بنايته و التزغرف الدي به و البرك و الجنينات و الخواجا ميخائيل صباغ Khwaja Mikha’ill Sabagh: No reference is available. مع
16
.
مدامته اتو و قعدوا معنا و عزونا و بعده خرجنا و اتينا للبيت . هنا با بالشام كل
17
.
بيت به بركة او بركتين يجي منها الماء و جميع اراضي البيوت هي
18
.
من مرمر مسقل و ابد ما يوجد حجار و عندهم عاده افقر بيوت التي تكون
19
.
لازم يوجد بها زهور و لأجل دلك جميع البيوت متروسه بالورود المجنسة .
20
.
عند رجوعي للبيت اخدت كارت بوستال من الصديق انطون جول من بيروت
21
.
يجاوب اسطري له و يقول بكل فرح اخد كتابي و سينسر جداً بمشاهدتي و سيرسل
22
.
رزوق بحوشي Razouk Bahoshi: No reference is available. لاستقبالي في المحطة نهار الاثنين . و بعد الفطور اجرنا عربية
23
.
و قصدنا نروح نعمل زياره لكرنل مكلر لأن نخاف نروح و ما نشوفه فسقنا الى

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01
.
Grand Hotel d'Orient Grand Hotel of the Orient: . لأن افتهمنا بانه نزل هناك فجينا و سئلنا
02
.
انكان هو موجود فقالوا انه معزوم عند قس الانكليز English priest: No reference is available. و الى الآن ما اجاء
03
.
فاعتمدنا نروح الى مكان يسموه الصالحيه al-Salhiyah: No reference is available. مطرح جميل للغاية فسقنا الى هناك
04
.
ما بين اشجار لطيفه و مخضره و زلنا طالعين قليلا ً قليلا ً و وصلنا
05
.
الى الصالحية بجانب الجبل و من هنا جميع بلد الشام تبان لنا مع الهوتيلات
06
.
و الينانات منظر كثير زريف فبعد درنا نحو مكان يسموه دمر Situated along the Barada valley and in the northwest, "Dumar" is one of the main areas in Damascus that the city planners developed in the later twentieth century and where newer suburbs were created. في درب
07
.
طويل و عدل بين الاشجار و بعده رجعنا تكراراً لهوتيل الذي به كرنل مكلر
08
.
و كدلك ما لقيناه فوضعنا الكارتات و رجعنا و كا نت ساعه ٦ . الغروب
09
.
سيدنا المطران مرض و تخربض و لم يزل في الفراش .
10
ايار ٢٢
صباح لطيف مع شمس قمت ساعه ٧ و سألنا على المطران
11
.
فقالوا بانه احسن و قد جابوا له الحكيم فرحنا شفناه و بعده اتى يزورنا فرنسيس Francis Shiha: No reference is available.
12
.
شيحا اخو الخواجاحبيب شيحا Habib Shiha: No reference is available.See note number 27, page number 005, line number 24. الذي في بغداد و قد كان الخواجا فرنسيس في بيروت
13
.
من كم يوم فعطيناه مكتوب توصيه من اخيه فوقف لنا بكل شيء و بعده ساعه
14
.
رحنا انا و الوالد الى الحمام لنستحم فدهبنا الى حمام يسموها المسك al-Misk: Name of a bath. No reference is available. -,٩
15
.
فدخلنا و شفناه حمام لطيفه صغيره و هنا جميع الحمامي كثير ازراف
16
.
و يوجد في الشام ٥٦ حمام لكن العادة الكريهة التي عندهم هي ان يبلطوا
17
.
جميع ارض الحمام بالمرمر اللامع و الدي يزلق عليه الانسان من دون شك
18
.
حتى والدي لما دخل سلق و وقع وقعه ملعونه على مقتله و سال الدم منه
19
.
و كدلك انا سلقت لكن لحقت اقوم فغسلنا و بعد ساعه رجعنا للبيت .
20
.
هنا اتاني Colectionneur de timbres-poste stamps: In the Arabic text, the word 'Pul' is used that is a Turkish usage of a Persian word which seems to have meant ' a small coin '. It has for meaning 'stamp, either postage or revenue, also 'fish scale'.stamp collector: in the Arabic text, the French phrase (Collectioneur de timbres-poste) is written. و يحب يلم الپول [CONTENT]
21
.
و انكان يوجد عندي اپوال للتبديل فجبت له و بقينا نحكي فقال بعد
22
.
الظهر يأخدني لبيته لنتراجع عن دلك فللحال وقته خبرونا بأن
23
.
مسس مكلر مع مسس تانر و القنصل مكلر سيأتون يشوفوننا

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01
.
و بعد ٥ دقائق اتوا و فرحوا بشوفنا و كنا كانه بالسفر في البر و بعده دخلوا
02
.
زاروا كنيسة السريان الملتصقه بالطركخانه و عند الرواح عزمونا عندهم على
03
.
الفطور غداً فعطيناهم قول باننا نجي . فبعد الفطور اعني ساعه واحده اجي
04
.
عندي لمام الپول و اخدني عنده للبيت و بدلت معه كم پول و رجعت ساعه ٣ .
05
.
كتبت كارت بوستال الى الصديق انطوان ﭽول الى بيروت و رسلتها بالبوسطة
06
.
و قلت له اني ليس مسافر من هنا الاثنين لكن الثلاثاء و لازم من كلّ بد
07
.
يرسل يرسل رزوق بحوشي الى المحطة لاشوفه و كدلك يجوابني ادا عنده مكاتيب
08
.
باسمي وصلته بحفضه . و كدلك ارسلت جميع مكاتيبي الى بغداد الدين
09
.
كنت محضرهم فارسلت كتب الى اهلنا و الى جاني الى جميل عبد الكريم مكتوب صغير
10
.
الى البصره الى الاخوة و غير ذلك و كدلك كارت بوستال الى انطوان جوليتي
11
.
الى طلعت نصوري Talat Nassouri: No refernce is found. و اعطيت ١٠ غروش صاغ Standard Piasters : in the Arabic text 'Sagh' is used to mean ' proper, standard, in order, right ' in addition that it means ' a rank in the army and police '. حقهم . اليوم من بعد الظهر ما طلعنا الى
12
.
الخارج . سيدنا المطران كيفه كثير احسن من البارحه .
13
ايار ٢٣
صباح لطيف كثير مع صحو و هواء بهج قمت ساعه -,٦
14
.
و بدلت هدومي و كما اليوم هو الأحد نزلنا ساعه -,٧ و سمعنا قداس
15
.
في الكنيسة و بعده رجعنا . زارنا المسيو فرنسيسشيحا لأن قبل ساعه
16
.
رحنا لعنده و ما شفناه بالبيت فالآن اتى و رادنا نروح معه لكن الوقت
17
.
فات لأن لازم نروح نفطر عند كرنل مكلر . ساعه -,١١ اخدنا عربية
18
.
و سقنا الى هوتيل دلوريان لعند كرنل مكلر فما كانوا هناك و بعد نصف
19
.
ساعه اتوا من الكنيسة البروتستانت ففطرنا و رجعنا ساعه ٢ بعدما
20
.
ودعناهم لأن يمكن ما نشوفهم بعد فمسس تانر طلبت مننا ان
21
.
نجي نشوفها في لندره و كدلك كرنل مكلر فوعدناهم ان نروح نشوفهم
22
.
حقيقة احتصرنا لفرقتهم لأن صار لنا زمان معهم . فرجعنا و بعده
23
.
رحنا زرنا مسيو فرنسيس شيحا فهناك راينا جملة اشغال عتيقه مثل

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01
.
انتيكات و فرش و غير اشياء و هو كثير يحب شغل القديم فرجعنا بعد ساعه
02
.
و نصف . سمعنا بأن اخي مطران باسيل مطران انطون Archbishop Antoine: No reference is available.
03
.
سيشرف غداً للشام و اليوم كانوا يحضرون له اوضة و حقيقة اننا
04
الشام
استحينا من القعود هنا نأكل من عنده . ساعه ٥ رحنا مع الخواجا
05
.
ميخائيل و عائلته الى التنزه فخرجنا من باب الشرقي و فتنا على الجنينات
06
.
الصفنية Al-Safaniyya: No reference is available. و الحادي العشريه Al-Hadi Ashariyya: No reference is available. و غير دلك و الناس هنا كانوا مثل الدود like worms: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897. و الوف
07
.
من الستات و الاولاد و الرجال كانوا ينغشون للتنزه و جميعهم نصاره
08
.
و اكثرهم نصاره فهكدا كان ازدحام حتى ما كان مكان لمشي العربيات
09
.
اخيراً دخلنا في جنينة تسمى البغدادي Al-Baghdadi: No reference is available. و قعدنا هناك لمقدار ساعه
10
.
و اعطينا كل واحد قرشين و رجعنا الغروب و الناس لم تزل مثل الرمل like sand: See note number 076, page number 018, line number 18 for the entry of April 21st 1897.
11
.
تروح و تجي . بعد العشاء سهرنا في اوضة الخوري بطرس .
12
ايار ٢٤
صباح كثير لطيف و صحو صافي قمنا ساعه -,٦ و بعد
13
.
التبديل رحنا الى بيت ميخائيل و من هناك الى كم بيت آخر به اجناس الزهور
14
.
و غير اشيا و بما اليوم هو يوم الآخير لنا بالشام فلازم نحضر اشغالنا
15
.
للمشي فبعد رجوعنا اعني ساعه ١٠ شفنا سيدنا المطران ملبوك
16
.
بالتعزيل و التحضير لأخيه مطران انطون الدي سيشرف اليوم العصر
17
.
الى هنا . ما طلعنا اليوم لنروح الى غير مكان . العصر رسلت كارت
18
Damascus
الى انطوان في بيروت اقول له بأن نية سفرنا تغير و سيكون
19
.
نهار الاربعاء العصر وصولنا الى بيروت لأن بدنا نزور بعلبك Ba'albek: Situated east of the Litani River, Ba'albek that is named for the lord Baal of the Beqaa valley where it lies, is an ancient Phoenician city known as Heliopolis. It became a Roman colony in the first century A.D. and since that time continuous constructions were undertaken by the consecutive Roman Emperors to build and modify the sumptuous and monumental temples for their deities as it was a place of an oracle and divination from earliest times. Famous for three great temples of which the most important is the temple sacred to Jupiter Baal that is identified with the sun hence known in tradition as the Temple of the Sun, the other two temples are for the worship of the deities Venus and Bacchus. In the fifties of the third century, Heliopolis was known as one of the largest two sanctuaries in the Western world besides Praeneste in Italy. With the spread of Christianity, the Emperor Constantine and others succeeding him built basilicas using parts of the temples and their vast stone blocks. The Emperor Justinian ordered to have eight columns disassembled and shipped to Constantinople for the construction of Hagia Sophia. During the early Islamic period, the old city was a cause of argument especially between the caliphs of Damascus and then of Egypt. The Crusaders raided the city and it was three times shaken by earthquakes, however it revived in 1282 owing its fine architecture reflected in its mosque and fortress to Sultan Qalawun. In the fifteenth century, the city was pillaged by Timur. In 1517, the city was controlled by the Ottomans as the rest of Syria, though the Ottomans' authority was only nominal. It was once more destroyed by earthquakes in 1759. In 1840, the Ottomans were granted full authority in Ba'albek with the treaty of London. The digs started in Ba'albek in 1898 by order of the German Emperor Wilhelm II who while traveling to Jerusalem, passed by Ba'albek and was very impressed by the monumentality and beauty of the ruins though earlier in the 18th century interested archeologists had made engravings and documentation of the ruins. الشهيره
20
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بالبنايات القديمة و سنسافر من هنا بكره صباحاً . ايضاً اتانا الآن
21
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تلغراف من شكرالله عبود Shukrullah 'Aboud: No reference is available. من بيروت يقول " ننتضركم بالمحطة " لأن
22
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اول البارح كتبنا له كتاب و طلبنا منه ان يعرفنا على بيت
23
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هوتيل مناسب لنزول به . فحالاً دقينا له تيل و قلنا " نكون

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عندكم الاربعاء مساءً متشكرين " و ايضاً كتبنا له كتاب نعرفه عن سفرنا
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الى بعلبك و ثم الى بيروت. ساعه -,٤ بعد الظهر ر راح مطران
03
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باسيل مع القسان لاستقبال اخيه فبعد كم دقيقة اتوا و دخلوه بالازياح
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الكلي و جملة ناس كانوا معه و هو مطران انطون رجل اختيار ابو ٧٠ سنه
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يمكن و بعد الكنيسة اعني ساعه -,٦ اخدني الخواجا ميخائيل قرواني
06
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ودهبنا الى جنينة الحادي عشريه و هي ما بين نهرين و زريفة
07
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المنظر و عند الغروب رجعنا و هده اخر مره ماشي في الشام لأن
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غداً صباحاً سنأخد سكة الحديد الى زحله . و حقيقة يا حيف
09
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على فرقة الشام لانه كثير حبيناها.
10
.

11
.

12
ايار ٢٥
قمنا بكير و بدينا نحضر و نشد غراضنا للسفرفي
13
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الـ Train الدي يمشي بعد ساعه و نصف فعزلنا جميع
14
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ما كان في اوضتنا و بدلنا هدومنا و تهيئنا للسفر من الشام
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التي حقيقة للغايه حبيتها و يا ليت على السكنه بها من يوم وصولنا
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الى الآن جميع الناس كانوا معنا بلطف و وجه مبسم . فبعد
17
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ان دخلت و سمعت القداس اخر مره خرجت و نزلنا اسبابنا
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من الاوضة و وضعناهم في عربة و كانوا حضار جميع القسان و المطرانيين
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و خواجه ميخائيل قرواني و امرأته فودعنا جميعهم و كثير احتصرنا على فرقتهم
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لأن الجميع كانوا معنا مثل اقرباء فبعد ان استكثرنا بخيرهم ساقت
21
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بنا العربة الى محطة سكة الحديد الى البرامكه al-Baramika: The Damascus railway station that traveled between Damascus and Beirut. فوصلنا هناك
22
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Billet في ثاني درجه الى زحله Zahla: [Zahlé] A city in central Lebanon, noted for its orchards, vineyards, and arak. فقط ساعه -,٧ و اخدنا الـ

Page 061


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و اعطينا حقنا اعني الى ثلاثة انفس في ٧ مجيديات و ربع لا غير
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لأن من زحله نأخد عربية الى بعلبك فساعه ٨ الا ّ خمس دقائق
03
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الترين صاح فدخلنا حالاً . و كانوا معنا يرافقونا خادمنا منصور
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و محمد السقه الدي اجوا معنا من بغداد فهنا توادعنا معهم و حقيقة
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كثير شفناها صعبة لأن هولا كانوا الآخرين معنا من بلدنا بغداد
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فكنا نبكي و المسكين منصور كان يبكي مثل ولد فودعناهم اخيراً
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و الترين تحرك و مشي من البرامكه فزلنا ماشين بسرعه
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كليه و هده اول مره مشيت في سكة الحديد فكنا نفوت ما بين
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بساتين و اشجار و عيون التي بالحقيقة لطيفة المنظر و على ظني
10
السفر من الشام
في اورپا ما يوجد مثلها فكانا تارة نعلو و تارة ننخفض لأن هنا لازم
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نصعد جبال اللبنان و الجبال هنا عالية جداً و التلج نائم عليها
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و الغيم في نصفها يطلع مثل بخار الابيض الوقت من الصباح الى الآن
13
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كثير تعيس غيم قوي و رطب مثل اشد و اعتم ايام الشتاء . مشي
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الـ Train ساعه ٧,٥٥ من البرامكه و وصلنا الى محطات على الطريق
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اعني : - برامكه ساعه ٧,٥٥ دومر ٨,١٠ هامه ٨,٢٠ مشينا من هامه ٨,٢٥
16
.
جَدَيْدَه ٨,٣٣ مشينا ٨,٣٥ عين فيجه Ayn Fija: A town in Syria, about ten miles northwest of Damascus. ٨,٤٥ مشينا ٨,٥٧ دير قانون Dayr Qanun: A village in southern Lebanon. ٩,٥
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سوق وادي بَرَدَا Souk Wadi Barada: The small village of Souk Wadi Barada (28 km) stands on the site of the ancient Hellenistic town of Abila. ٩,٢٠ مشينا ٩,٢٢ بلا اسم ٩,٣٠ مشينا ٨,٣٥ زبداني Zabdani: A city in southwestern Syria, close to the Lebanese border. It is in the center of a green valley and surrounded by mountains. The scenic view and mild climate have made it a popular tourist destination. ٩,٥٥ مشينا
18
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١٠,٣ سرغايا Sargayah: A town in Lebanon along the railway between Damascus and Beirut. ١٠,٢٥ مشينا ١٠,٢٨ يحفوفه Yahfufah: A town in Lebanon along the railway between Damascus and Beirut. ١٠,٤٣ مشينا ١٠,٤٧ رياق Riyaq: A town in Lebanon, near the city of Zahla. There is still an old train station on the former line between Beirut and Damascus. ١١,٧ مشينا
19
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١١,١٢ . وصلنا زحله ساعه ١١,٣٠ و تسمى ايضاً مُعَـلـَّقـَه Mu'allaqah: Another name for the town of Zahla, located in Beqqa, Lebanon. فبما كان وصولنا الى
20
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هنا تقريب الظهر فالاوفق طنينا ان نتغدا هنا لأن يوجد قبال
21
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المحطة Buffet de Gare فاستقبلونا اوادم الـ Buffet
22
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و اخدوا اغراضنا الى مكان الأكل فدخلنا و اكلنا سريعاً و كرينا عربة
23
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الى بعلبك رواح و رجوع في ليره واحده عثمانيه و ركبنا بها و سقنا
24
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ساعه ١٢,٥ نحو بعلبك لكن الوقت للغاية منحوس و المطر لم يزل يشتد و الغيوم

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قويه و الرطوبه كثيره مع هواء غربي و هنا على ما افتهمنا بأن جميع افصال
02
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السنه الوقت هكدا هو لأن الجبال اللبنان دائر حول فزالت
03
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بنا العربية تمشي و نحن نمر عن بعد على مناظر للغاية بهجة اي ببعض
04
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قرى على اسفل الجبل بين الخضار و الحشيش عيشة للغاية هنية و المناخ
05
بعلبك السفر من الشام الى بيروت
هنا ما يوجد مثله و ما اظن احد يمرض . لما كنا نتغدى في المحطة اتى
06
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Train من بيروت و ساعه ١٢ سافر الى الشام و لما كنا بالعربة شفناه
07
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عن بعد يمرق مثل الهواء و يا له من منظر جميل . قعدت الترين للغاية
08
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راحه و الأحد ما يحس لا بخض و لا بانزعاج و بعض الامرار من سرعت مشيه
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اعين الانسان تغوش و ما يقدر ينطر للبر. فالعربة التي ركبنا بها كثير
10
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عمال تزعج لأن الدرب عملوه من حجار صغار وصلنا الى مكان يسموه
11
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ابلحا Ablaha: A town about 30 km northeast of Ba'albek, Lebanon. ساعه ١ و كذلك بيت شيمه Bayt Shima: A town in Lebanon. ساعه ٢,٥ و اخيراً وصلنا بعلبك
12
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ساعه -,٤ و شفنا الهياكل القديمه بانت لنا عن بعد و مثل التي عندنا بالتصاوير
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في بغداد فاول شيء هو عواميد مقدار ٨ العرب عملوهم من مدة كم سنه و ثم صخرة
14
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الكبيره التي لم اتوا بها الاقدمين للبنيان و هي شيء ضخم جداً طولها يمكن ١٥
15
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متر . فلما وصلنا باب البلدة استقبلونا اصحاب الهوتيلات و كل واحد يقول
16
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هوتيلي احسن اخيراً رحنا الى واحد اسمه Hotel Victoria Hotel Victoria: A hotel located near the ancient Roman ruins at Ba'albek in Lebanon. This large and well-preserved ancient temple complex was once known as the Heliopolis. قبال الخرائب و بعد
17
.
ما وضعنا اغراضنا و شربنا منكاسة جاي لأننا كنا غاية ً بردانين من الطريق
18
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و كنا نرجف اخدنا ادمي الهوتيل و رحنا لندور في بعلبك اي آثار القديمة
19
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التي تشبه تدمر فاعطينا حق الدخله ٣ مجيديات و دخلنا و شفنا شيء
20
.
الدي ما شفناه و يطير عقل البشر على ما صنعته ايادي الاقدمين اما البناية
21
.
فهي من صخر طخم جسيم شفت حايط مبني من ٣ قطع كل واحده
22
.
طولها يمكن ٢٠ متر و العواميد شي يشوش طول واحد يمكن ٥٠ متر
23
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و الجميع من ثلاثة قطع صخر فقط اعني هكدا فضرعت الدائره فطلعت

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١٣ فوت اعني هكدا فيا له من شيء جسيم لا يدخل بعقل آدمي و غير
02
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اشياء التي تشوش و يوجد بجانب الباب درج تطلع الى فوق
03
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فطلعت عليها و عديت ٢٢ پايه من صخره واحده فقط و هنا شفت ليس
04
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ميئات و الوف بل ملايين من اسماء الشخاص الذين قد زاروا بعلبك
05
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و بعضهم من الاشراف و البعض منهم قد اتوا معهم آلات الحفر ليكتبوا اسمأهم
06
.
الواحد يرى جميع الحيطان مزروعه بالأسماء فاول مكان دخلناه كان
07
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هيكل جوبرتر Temple de Jupiter و ثاني هيكل الشمس Temple
08
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du Soleil و حقيقة بعلبك تستحق الذكر على ما بها من رفعت البنيان
09
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و شهاقته و ضخمه فاني بالحقيقة تحيرت على ما شفته في هدا الموضع و اكد
10
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بانه يفوق كثير تدمر و غير مكان و كنت اتمنى لاشوفه بعد لكن بكره
11
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صباح بدنا نسافر تكراراً الى زحله و ثم بالكاري النار الى بيروت . هوتيل
12
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القاعدين به هو صغير و سكن و قبال خرائب بعلبك . اعتمدنا
13
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بأن بكره صباح نرجع بالعربه الى زحله كي نأخد الترين تكراراً الى
14
.
بيروت . غروب معتم و ممطر .
15
ايار ٢٦
قمت صباح اعني ساعه ٦ و كان البرد قوي
16
.
و الليلة كانت جميعها تمطر مع حالوب و هواء لكن الفجر صحت فبعد
17
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ان شربنا الجاي امرنا صاحب الهوتيل ان يقدم الحساب فقال
18
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عشرة فرنكات فدفعناها له و خرجنا راكبين بالعربه و متقبلين
19
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نحو زحله فزلنا نمشي بين جبال و الوقت قاسي بالبرد فجبال
20
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اللبنان التي كانت محيطتنا ملبسه بالتلج منطر للغاية لطيف و كدلك
21
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الخضارات و البيوت بين الوديان و هنا المناخ كثير
22
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طيب اخيراً وصلنا ساعه =,٩ على بيت صغير و يسموه بيت شيمه
23
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و هنا وقفنا و دهبنا الى اليبت و شفنا يعملون دود القز و شفنا

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عندهم مقدار ٥٠٠ طبق كبار مملوئة من الدود و بعده ركبنا بالعربه
02
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و وصلنا بعد ساعه الى مكان اسمه كرك Karak: A city in Jordan, famous for its large 12th century crusader castle. و يقولوا بأن هدا مكان
03
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نوح اي قبره اخيراً اتينا الى زحله ساعه ١١ و شفنا بعد الكاري
04
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الحديد ما اتي من دمشق فدخلنا في الـ Buffet لنفطر
05
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و بعده نأخد تسكرة للعربة ففي ساعه -,١١ اجى ترين دمشق
06
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و يا للعجب طلعوا منه كرنل مكلر و امرائته و مسس تانر و يا للمصادفة
07
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العجيبة فهم ايضاً اكلوا معنا و لما صارت ساعه =,١١ سلمنا عليهم
08
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و اسرعنا الى الترين و ركبنا به . كرنل مكلر قال بانه رائح من هنا الى
09
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بعلبك و سيكون بكره في بيروت . ساعه ١٢ تكميل تحرك
10
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الترين و مشي بسرعه فساعه ١٢,١٥ وصلنا سيد نايل Sayed Nayil: A town in central Lebanon. و صلنا جديثة Jaditha: A town in central Lebanon, near Zahla.
11
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اشتوره Ashtora: A town in central Lebanon. ١٢,٣٠ مشينا ١٢,٣٣ ريجات Rijat: A town in central Lebanon. ١٢,٥٢ مشينا ١٢,٥٥ و ساعه
12
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١,٢٥ دخل في لغم في الجبل اعني الجبل منقوب من اسفله و دخلنا به و كانت
13
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طلمة مثل الليل الحالك و بقينا مقدار ٣ دقائق في الـ Tunnel
14
.
ساعه ١,٣٢ وقفنا و لـ Locomotive وضعوه لوراء لأن يوجد نزول
15
.
كلي . من زحله الى هنا كنا نصعد حتى صرنا بعلو ١٥٠٠ متر و جميع البيوت
16
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و الاشجار كانت تبان في انخفاض كلي و كنا نشوف البساتين مثل شدات
17
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ورد و الناس مثل دبان و كدلك الغيم كانت تحتنا بكثير و هنا الغيم
18
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غطانا و صرنا كاننا في بحر و يا للمنطر الجميل من هنا على جبال اللبنان
19
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ما اطن يوجد في جميع الدنيا هكدا منظر لطيف فساعه ١,٣٥ مشي
20
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راجعاً ليأخد درب النزول و حقيقة لما كنت افتكر بانه سينزل
21
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من هكدا علو كان عقلي يلعب . ساعه ١,٥٦ عين صفر مشينا
22
.
٢,٣ بهامدون Bahamdun: A town in Lebanon, historically linked to Beirut by railway. Today this resort town is a popular tourist destination.. ٢,١٥ مشينا ٢,١٧ عاليه Alay: [Aley] A town in Mount Lebanon meaning 'high place' in Aramaic; historically connected to both Damascus and Beirut by railway. ٢,37 مشينا ٢,٤٥
23
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ارايا Araya: A town in the Baabda District of Lebanon. ٣ مشينا ٣,٧ جمهور Jumhur: A town in Lebanon. ٣,٢٢ مشينا ٣,٢٧ باباده Babade: [Baabda] A town in Mount Lebanon. ٣,٤٠ مشينا

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01
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٣,٤٥ و من هنا بانت لنا عن بعد بلد بيروت و البحر لكن عن بعد
02
.
كلي . ساعه ٣,٥٧ حدث Hadath: This is a town near the Taurus Mountains in southeastern Turkey; the historic center of the Syriac Orthodox Church. مشينا ٤,٠٠ و هده آخر محطة لبيروت
03
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فبقيت انظر من الشباك الى ان صاح بالصافوره و دخل ساعه
04
.
٤,١٥ محطة بيروت فيا للمشاهدة المفرحة لما شفت ورأ المحجر اصدقاي
05
بيروت Beirut
الاعزاز انطون جول و رزوق بحوشي و بينهم بهجة نصوري فصاحوا علي
06
.
و رديت عليهم السلام و حالاً عند وقوف الترين نزلت و اتيت على
07
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المحجر و تعانقت معهم و حقيقة كثير فرحت لما شفتهم و تذكرت كاني
08
.
في بغداد و بين الاحباب فحالاً اخدنا عربه و ركبنا بها و كدلك شفنا
09
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هنا بالمحطة ينتظر وصولنا الخواجا شكرالله عبود فالوالد و الوالده ركبوا
10
.
في عربه معه و انا مع الاصدقاء و سقنا جميعاً نحو هوتيل ما لنقضي ايامنا في
11
.
بيروت به فاتينا على هوتيل اسمه Hotel d'Amérique و اجرنا لأجل
12
.
كم يوم اوضتين واحده لي و الآخره للوالدين و هدا الهوتيل قبال موضع
13
.
اصدقاء فكثير فرحت على هدا النصيب . اجرنا الهوتيل على ١٨ فرنك يوماً
14
.
الى ثلاثتنا فبعد ان جبت الاصدقاء في اوضتي حكينا كثير على بغداد و اخدت
15
.
من انطوان ثلاثة مكاتيب اتيت لي من بغداد الواحد من انطوان جوليتي
16
.
و واحد من جاني كسبرخان و الآخر من جميل عبد الكريم ففتحت و قريت و فرحت
17
.
باستماعي اخبار الوطن و قد وصلتهم جميعاً مكاتيبي من العانه
18
.
و اخبار جدد ما في . فساعه ٦ خرجوا من عندي و اوعدوني بعد العشا
19
.
يأتون يسهرون معي . اني كثير تعجبت على بيروت و على
20
.
ترتيبها و كثير احسن من الشام باضعاف بنياتها مثل اورپا
21
.
و العربات بها مثل الدود و على القول يوجد ١٥٠٠ و في الشام
22
.
ما يوجد غير ٢٥٠ فقط . دروبها اعراض و مطبقه و نضيفه و هنا اول
23
.
مره شفت البحر و يا له من منظر زريف و في المينه يوجد كم مركب

Page 066


01
.
واحد منهم حربي فرنساوي الدي دائماً راسي هنا للمحافضه . فبعد
02
.
العشا اتوا عندي الاصدقاء و قضيت معهم كم ساعه . هوتيلنا
03
.
مليح و منظره كثير لطيف يعطي على فسحة كبيره و يسمون المكان
04
.
ساحة البرج معما في بعد ما شفت شي من بيروت و لازم لدلك
05
.
وقت كثير .
06
ايار ٢٧
قمت صباحاً و شفت الوقت كثير طيب و ربيعي مع صحو
07
.
لطيف بعدما بدلت هدومي دهبت مع الوالده لاستماع القداس في كنيسة
08
.
العازاريين Church of the Lazarists: The Congregation of the Mission (called CM by the Catholic Church) is an order of priests. They are popularly known as the Lazarists or Vincentians because they claim St. Vincent de Paul as their founder or patron. التي بجانبنا هي لأن اليوم عيد الرشيش فشفت
09
.
الكنيسة كثير لطيفه و مملوئه ناس اعني يمكن بالمائة ١٠ فقط رجال و الباقي
10
.
نساء و بنات و كانت هكدا مزدحمة الاوادم حتى ما كان موضع للقعود
11
.
النساء يقعدون تحت و الرجال فوق في طارمه و هنا عملوا اول تناول الاولاد
12
.
و كان مقدار ٢٠٠ بنت و ولد يتناولون و القداس عمله القاصد الدي موجود هنا و اسمه
13
.
Monsgneur Duval و الدي كان قبل كم سنه رأيس بادرية الموصل
14
.
و كانوا ايضاً خلاصية مركب الحربي الفرنساوي يسمعون القداس فبعد ساعه و نصف
15
.
خرجنا و جينا الى الهوتيل . اجاء عندنا الخواجا شكرالله عبود و اخدنا لندور
16
.
في السوقات لأن الوالد كان يريد يشتري كم شيء له حقيقية تعجبت
17
.
على الاسواق كثير احسن من الدين شفتهم في الشام الجميع مغطائين بالبلور
18
.
و نضاف و بترتيب فاشترينا بعض اغراض و رجعنا تقريباً الظهر .
19
.
ساعه واحدة اتوا عندي الاصدقاء و اخدوني عندهم فبين الحكي اعتمدنا ان نروح
20
.
لعند فوتكرافجي و نأخد صورتنا اربعتنا و نرسلها لبغداد بهدوم آلفرنك و الشبقات
21
.
فحالاً رحنا لعند مصور عال و اخدنا ما صممنا عليه لكن احتصرت لما قال لي المصور
22
.
بأن ذلك ما تخلص قبل اسبوع الآتي و انا اسبوع الآتي لازم اكون
23
.
في القاهره فقال لي يرسلهم لي الى هناك فرضيت على ذلك . خرجنا من

Page 067


01
.
عند المصور و جينا جميعاً الى هوتيلنا و قعدنا نحكي مقدار ساعتين و بعده هم دهبوا
02
.
للتنزه فساعه -,٥ اتى الخواجا شكراللهه و اخدنا في عربية لنروح نشوف الـ Port
03
.
مكان مرسي المراكب على البحر اعني المينه فرحنا هناك و يا له من منطر جميل
04
.
ميئاة من نساء و رجال رائحون و جايون و المراكب مرسيه و يوجد مركب الحربي
05
بيروت Beirut
الفرنساوي الـ Frثgate و اسمه Forbin The Forbin: A frigate is a type of warship common in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. و كانوا يدقون به موزيقة
06
.
و جميع الناس تنغش و حقيقة هدا الموضع الى اخره لطيف و منتزه جميليل
07
.
هنا شفنا واحد من بيت سرسق راكب في عربه تجرها حصان الدي
08
.
ما شفت ابد مثله لونه النصف ابيض مثل حليب و نصف الآخر ازرق
09
.
لكن هدا يسمى حصان و لما يمشي يخيف على قوته و مشيه
10
.
فزلنا دائرين دائر بيروت و نتفرج على هده العمارات الجميله على
11
.
ساحي البحر و بعد الغروب رجعنا الى الهوتيل و بعد العشا اتوا عندي
12
.
الاصدقاء يسهرون معي .
13
ايار ٢٨
صباح لطيف و هواء غربي قمت صباحاً ساعه -,٦ و بعد
14
.
ان بدلنا رحنا لعند الخواجا شكرالله الى المخزن و من هناك اخدناه و رحنا
15
.
للاسواق لمشتري بعض لوازم و بعده رحنا مع والدي الى عند فوتكرافجي
16
.
لمشترى كم صوره فهدا طلب غالي كثير فاعتمدنا نروح لعند غير واحد
17
.
رجعنا ساعه ١١ لمحلنا و بعد الريوق رحت لعند الاصدقاء و اخدت
18
.
انطوان ورزوق و رحنا في عربه ندور في بيروت و مرينا على جملة
19
.
اماكن التي ما شفتها بعد و ساعه ٤ رجعنا . ساعه ٥ رحنا جميعاً
20
.
و اخدنا الخواجا شكرالله و كرينا عربه لتروح بنا الى مكان منتزه يسموه
21
.
الحرش فحقيقة له منظر جميل و عروق الصنوبر مملوئة و مضللة
22
.
الارض جميعها فقعدنا في جنينة صغيره يسموه جنينة اللبنان
23
.
و الغروب رجعنا لمطرحنا . بعد الغروب اتوا عندي

Page 068


01
.
الاصدقاء و من الحكي قالوا بأن يوجد هنا موضع يسمعون به دق الكمانات
02
.
اي Orchestra فقالوا الاحسن نروح و نسمع الدق فرحنا ساعه
03
.
٩ و دخلنا في المجلس المملو من الافرنج و غير اجناس و سمعنا هدا الدق
04
.
الدي كثير نغم و الدقاقين هم ٥ رجال و مقدار ٨ بنات بعمر ١٨ و ٢٠
05
.
سنه و جميعهم متقنين بالدق فقعدنا مقدار ٣ ساعات و ثم رجعنا الى
06
.
موضعنا . اليوم الصباح زارنا الخواجانقولا موصلي شريك رزوق انكورلي في بصره و عزمنا على الفطور يوم الاحد .
07
ايار ٢٩
الفطور يوم الاحد. صباح وخم مع اغيوم و هواء مزعج بعد ما بدلنا خرجنا
08
.
انا و الوالد و رحنا لعند فوتكرافجي لنشتري منه صور بعلبك و تدمر
09
.
فاشترينا مقدار ١٢ ام ازود و بالتصادف لما كنا قاعدين عند المصورجي
10
.
ظهر على باب الدكان كرنل مكلر و حقيقة تعجبنا من هدا التصادف
11
.
العجيب معه في اي مكان نروح فهو البارحة وصل هنا و قعد في بعلبك
12
.
يومين و مسافر غداً الى بورت سعيد في احد المراكب
13
.
الـ Lloyثd فبعد ما خرجنا من الدكان رحنا لعند مخزن الـ
14
.
Messageries Maritimes لنقطع لنا تداكر للسفر من هنا
15
.
مع مركبهم الدي يمشي بعد غداً غروب فقالوا لنا الآن ما يصير
16
.
لكن غداً . فرجعنا للهوتيل ولقينا عندنا كرنل مكلر قاعد مع الوالده و بعد ربع
17
.
ساعه راح و تسالم معنا اخراً و قال اظن بالحقيقة اخر مرة. فانا التزمت ان
18
.
اسرع و كتب مكاتيبي لبغداد لأن البوسطة تروح اليوم بعد
19
.
الظهر اي السبت فكتبت الى لويزه الى جميل عبد الكريم الى نصوري
20
.
بحوشي الى انطوان جوليتي و الى منشي و نسيم و ارسلتهم للبوسطه مع
21
.
رزوق بحوشي متعهد . اوعدوني الاصدقاء بأن بعد الفطور يأتون
22
.
يأخدونا لنروح نزور كليه مار يوسف اي Université St. Joseph
23
.
الموجوده هنا الفاخره جداً. فساعه ٢ دهبنا جميعاً مع الوالدين الى الكلية

Page 069


01
.
و اخدنا رخصه من الرئيس للدخول فاتى الرئيس داته و قابلنا و دهب يرسل
02
.
لنا اب ليدورنا في جميع الاماكن فأتي البادري و دورنا لكن يا لها
03
.
من مدرسة التي تعجب و بها ٣ قوط و عديت ١٢٠ پايه الى ثالث قاط
04
.
فشفنا هنا جميع الاشياء مكان الاولاد الدين هم دائما ً هنا و مكان
05
بيروت Beirut
تبديلهم و نومهم و حواسهم و كدلك المدرسة مكان التعلوم و نزلنا الى
06
.
المطبعه و محل الكتب فحقيقه المطبعه حيرت عقلي على ما بها من
07
.
الصناعات و يوجد مقدار ١٠٠ واحد يشتغل كل واحد في شي و جميع
08
.
المطبعه تشتغل بالنار و البخار و الاكتريك و فرجونا على كل شي
09
.
و ثم دخلنا محل الكتب فهنا حرت على ما شفت من كتب يمكن
10
.
(.....) في طبقات من كل اجناس و ثم شفنا كنيستهم التي بها ثلاث
11
.
طبقات و كل طبقه بها كم طرونر للقداس اخر الجميع شي كثيرظريف
12
.
و افتهمت من الاولاد بأن غداً بعد الظهر يوجد هنا روايه كبيره عمال
13
.
يعملوها لعيد رئيس الدير فطلبت من بادري شيخو الذي نعرفه
14
.
كثير مليح و كان قبل كم آن في بغداد ان يطلب لي الاذن للحضور بهده
15
.
الـ Tragédie فاوعدني بدلك . فخرجنا ساعه ٦ و كل هدا الوقت
16
.
كنا ندور و نتفرج على هده الكليه الكبيره جداً . عند الغروب اتى
17
.
عندنا القس يوسف واحد الدي كان في الموصل و الخواجه شكر الله و الاصدقاء
18
.
و كدلك بعد العشا رحنا الى محل ال Orchestra .
19
ايار ٣٠
صباح لطيف مع هواء غربي بما اليوم هو يوم
20
.
الأحد اعتمدنا مع شكرالله ان اليوم نسمع القداس في محل القصاده
21
.
في كابله موجوده هناك فساعه -٧ كرينا عربيه و رحنا الى القصاده
22
.
فهناك سمعنا القداس و دخلنا مع شكرالله لنزور القاصد فبما
23
.
هو كان مشغول ارسل واحد من الباتريه الدي كان في الموصل
24
.
لمقدار ١٢ سنه و بعده اتى القاصد Monseigneur Duval

Page 070


01
.
و فرح بزيارتنا لكنه كثير تقيل و ما يضحك فودعناه وخرجنا لنزور
02
.
بيت الخواجا حبيب سكزان من طرف هو اتى عندنا اول البارحه
03
.
مع مدامته فكانوا بالكنيسه و بعده اتوا و كانوا عندهم جملة خطار
04
.
فساعه ١١ رحنا لبيت الخواجا نيقولا موصلي لنتريق
05
.
هناك لأن اول البارحه عزمنا على الفطور فشفنا بيته كبير
06
.
و قاطين و بعد الفطور رحت انا حالاً الى الهوتيل لافتش ادا
07
بيروت Beirut
الرخصة اتتني حتى احظر في الروايه اليسوعين فلقيت الـ
08
.
Carte d'Entrée حاضره و رزوق بحوشي قد جابه لي فاسرعت
09
.
حالاً لعند الـ Université و قدمت الكارت و دخلت
10
.
فلقيت مقدار ١٠٠٠ نفس حضار مع قنصل الفرنساوي مسيو
11
.
Souhart و قبطان الفريكاته Forbin و ساعه ٣ تكميل
12
.
فوتحت البرده و بانت الرواية و هي اسمها حرب ميئة سنه
13
.
La guerre de cent ans لكن كانوا يعملوها خشوعية الى الغاية
14
.
فسمعت فصلين و صارت ساعه ٤ فخرجت و اتيت الى الهوتيل
15
.
لأن واعدت ارجع حتى نروح في عربية مع خواجه شكراللهه
16
.
و اهله الى خارج بيروت في الجنينات فساعه ٥
17
.
اتى الخواجا شكرالله مع عائلته و رحنا نحو الحرش و ثم على اليسار
18
.
الى جنينة فاخره على نهر صغير و اسمها جنينة الباشا لكن لطيفه للغايه
19
.
و بها في الوسط عساكر اللبنان تدق الموسيقه بالالحان كثير
20
.
حلوه و البستان متروسه من النساء و الرجال لابسين على افرنكه
21
.
و ايضاً جمله اناس من الاغنياء اعني مثل بيت سرسق و غير اوادم
22
.
مقدار ٤٠/٣٠ واحد و هولأ يملكون ملائين . و بالأتفاق وقت الدي
23
.
دخلنا البستان شفنا مسيو موناساترسكي الذي كان

Page 071


01
.
قبل ثلاث سنين في بغداد متفوض في الريجي و قال لنا بأنه داهب
02
.
الى اسطنبول و شفته كثير متغير و ضعفان . و بعد الغروب
03
.
رجعنا الى محلنا .
04
ايار ٣١
صباح لطيف و غيم خفيف . اليوم هو يوم سفرنا من
05
.
هنا الى بورت سعيد فبعد ما حضرنا اغراضنا اتوا عندنا مثل اخو حبيب
06
.
شيحا الخواجا ابراهيم و الدي نعرفه كثير مليح لما كان قبل ٤ سنين في بغداد
07
.
و ايضاً القس يوسف طويل الكلداني و افتهمنا منه بأن يوجد هنا في دير
08
.
العزاريين راهبة البنت تريزه ماريا التي تصير اهليه من بيت الصايغ
09
.
فالوالده حبت كثير تشوفه فاخدها القس لعندها و انا بقيت وحدي
10
.
في الهوتيل فالوالده عند الرجوع احكت بانها شافت الراهبه و اسمها
11
.
Sœur Angélique Soeur Angelique: To be completed. و قد فرجتها على مواضعهم جميعها و تعجبت على
12
Leaving Beirut
صنعات اولاد اليتامه . بعد الظهر اتوا عندي الأصدقاء و بقوا معي
13
.
طول الوقت اتت عندنا الراهبت انجيليك و جابت معها جملة صور
14
.
و فوتكرافات لتروينا اياها و نحن كدلك عملنا مثلها . رحت مع الأصدقاء
15
.
عند المصورجي الدي اخد صورنا و شفت بانه ما خلص شي بعد ابداً
16
.
فاعطيته ادريسي الى مارسيليا ليرسلهم الى هناك ساعه -,٥ اخدنا
17
.
عشانا هنا و اعطينا حق الهوتيل ٩٢ فرنك و بعد نصف ساعه خرجنا صحبت
18
.
الخواجا شكراللهعبود و انطون رزوق و بهجة الى الكمرك لنركب من هناك
19
.
الى المركب ففتشوا صناديقنا و شافوا الباسبورت و رخصونا لنروح
20
.
و الحاصل شغل العصملي جميعه عداب و من دون ادب فهنا لزم
21
.
علي ان اودع الاصدقاء فحقيقة كثير شفتها صعبه هده الفرقه لأن
22
.
طول هدا الوقت كنا مثل اخوه في بيروت و على قلب واحد فادرفت
23
.
عيوني دموعاً على مفارقتهم فركبنا في بلم و عبرنا الى المركب و انا لم ازال
24
.
اسلم عليهم بالشفقه فوصلنا المركب و قبل ما نطلع ايضاً طلبوا الباسبورت

Page 072


01
.
و ما رخصوا شكرالله ان يصعد الى فوق خوفاً لئلا يكون مهزوم لأن الآن
02
.
عمال ما يخلون اهل سوريا تروح الى امريكا لأن جميع الضيع خليت.
03
السفر من بيروت
فقبل الصعود الى المركب توادعنا مع شكرالله و طلعنا الى المركب . فيا له من
04
.
مركب كبير كانه جبل اسمه Orénoque Orenoque: Name of a French Frigate,built in 1848, that served primarily in the Mediterranean Sea. و القبطان اسمه
05
.
Sellier Sellier: The name of the Captain who sailed the ‘Orénoque’. فاستقبلونا هنا المعلميه و اخدونا الى قماره لأن كان قد اخدنا
06
.
اول درجه و دفعنا ٥٠, ١٧٥ فرنك مع الأكل فانا اخدت قمره ايضاً لي
07
.
الجميع في هده القيمه . فبعد ان وضعنا اسبابنا في القمارات طلعنا الى
08
.
سطح المركب اعني الى ثالث درجه و تعجبت على هدا المركب الداهيه .
09
.
به ٣ شرع و به سالون يحوي على ٢٥ ميز للئُكل كل ميز يأكلون عليه
10
.
١٢ ادمي و في الصدر يوجد بيانو كبير و له سطح طوله ٧٠ خطوه
11
.
و انا كثير حبيته .
12
.

13
.

14
.


15
.
ساعه ٨ تكميل تحرك المركب Orénoque من مينةبيروت
16
.
و تقبل نحو البحر العرمرم و البلد تتلئلأ لنا و سرنا نبتعد رويداً رويداً
17
.
المركب بدى يلعب قليل و خفت لئلا ادوخ فصبرت نفسي على السطح
18
.
الى ساعه ٩ فشفت ان معدتي تغيرت و لا بد من لعوب هدا المركب
19
.
لأنه فارغ و ما به كثير حمل نزلت و استخيرت ان انام فدخلت
20
حزيران ١
قمارتي و نمت .